A Research on the Factors that Affect Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Patients

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A Research on the Factors Affecting Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Patients

Introduction

Diabetes is a chronic illness occurring when the pancreas fails to produce sufficient insulin or when the body ineffectively utilizes the insulin that it produces, causing elevated glucose concentration in the blood (hyperglycemia). Type 2 diabetes is a progressive condition occurring after the body is resistant to insulin’s normal effects or steadily losses its capacity of producing enough insulin in the pancreas. This condition is associated with modified risk factors that are linked to lifestyle, and the risk factors are family and genetic related. According to NCBI (2016), Type 2 diabetes is managed and controlled with a combination of healthy eating, regular exercise, and reduction of weight. This type of diabetes is caused by genetic disposition where an individual from the family line inherits the disposition which is later triggered by the environment.

This condition is important as it accounts for 90 to 95 percent of all cases that are diagnosed with diabetes (WHO, 2016). According to Vinke and Duijn (2011), diabetic people have twice the risk of death in comparison to individuals of the same age who do not have the condition.  As number of individuals with Type 2 diabetes continues to rise, so does the cost burden and complication incidence. However, WHO (2016) has revealed that up to 85% of morbidities and complications can be prevented, effectively treated, or delayed with healthy diet and lifestyle, appropriate monitoring and medication and visiting health professionals. An analysis of control factors that affect Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus on diabetic patients seeking treatment in a hospital reveals that exercise is the best control measure as shedding pounds improves blood sugar levels.

Control Factors That Affect Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

One of the control measures of the condition is diet. Patients should have normal healthy eating and if there are concerns of cardiovascular risk, they should adopt a Mediterranean diet. Physical exercise is another important measure where individuals should have at least thirty minutes daily of moderate physical exercise, and more than 150 minutes a week. Type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes patients should control their weight to retain a normal BMI of 18.5 to 24.9 (Steyn et al., 2004). Another control measure in the management of type 2 diabetes is reduction of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption.

Controlling Weight Using Diet

Eating diet that is dense in foods which quickly break into glucose causes glycemic spikes easily thereby, rapidly increasing the level of blood glucose. These glycemic spikes elevate the level of insulin which in turn causes a host of medical problems, like metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and weight gain. These are the precursors of developing Type 2 diabetes (Steyn et al., 2004). According to Sofia, Zyga, Sparta, and Greece (2016) adhering to a low-carbohydrate, low fat diet reduces the number of empty calories consumed leading to low body fat and weight loss. Naturally, fat is resistant to insulin and thus reducing the body fats allows the body to be more sensitive to insulin.

Sofia, Zyga, Sparta, and Greece (2016) explain that both the quality and the amount of dietary fat modify insulin insensitivity and glucose tolerance. When a diet has a high fat content, it results to glucose tolerance deterioration by several mechanisms like reduced proportion of glycogen synthase, impaired glucose transport, decreased binding  of  insulin  to  its  receptors, and accumulation  of  stored  triglycerides  in  skeletal muscle. The patients should eat balanced calories to balance weight by consuming food with low calories content. It is also advisable to eat regular meals at regular intervals and if hungry in between the meals, the client should eat a low fat snack. Eating plenty of high quality omega-3 fats such as krill oil, avoiding trans-fat, and optimizing on their vitamin D levels are advised.

Controlling Weight Using Exercise

NCBI (2016) explains that activities and exercise are essential as they improve an individual’s overall health and control their blood sugar levels. Exercise improves cardiorespiratory illnesses, body composition, physical functioning, cardiovascular risk, glycemic control, and total well-being of patients with pre-diabetes and Type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, exercise training and other lifestyle modification have become a central prevention strategy, treatment, and management therapy in the control of diabetes. It is recommended that individuals with this condition should have 125 minutes of vigorous intensity exercise or a minimum of 210 minutes moderate intensity each week using a combination of resistance training and aerobic exercises (Steyn et al., 2004). The common types of exercise they should engage in are jogging, swimming, biking, basketball, hula hooping, and walking among others.

Exercise is also important as it controls weight, reduces the amount of medication taken, reduces stress and tension, and elevates energy (Sofia, Zyga, Sparta, & Greece, 2016). Patients should incorporate the get up and get moving criteria. Sitting for long periods leads to increase of weight. Patients should take the stairs instead of elevators and walking or cycling instead of driving (Steyn et al., 2004). Individuals with this condition should get an exercise program where they choose physical activities that they like, schedule their workout, slowly increase their intensity and time, finding an exercise partner, and finally look for workout journal.

Conclusion

Regular physical exercise is key in managing and treating diabetes together with proper meal planning and stress management. Prevention remains better than cure and morbidities and complications can be prevented, effectively treated, or delayed with healthy diet and lifestyle, appropriate monitoring and medication, and visiting health professionals. However, exercise and changes in diet may not be enough to lower the levels of blood sugars to a healthy level, and in that case, physicians prescribe one or more oral diabetes medications. Severe patients should eliminate grains and sugar from their diet especially fructose which is more detrimental than other sugar forms and avoiding trans-fats.

References

NCBI,. (2016). Exercise and Type 2 Diabetes. America Diabetes Association. http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc10-9990

Sofia, Zyga, Sparta, & Greece,. (2016). The role of exercise and nutrition in type ii diabetes mellitus management. Health Science Journal. Retrieved from http://www.hsj.gr/medicine/the-role-of-exercise-and-nutrition-in-type-ii-diabetes-mellitus-management.php?aid=3627

Steyn, Mann, Bennet, Temple, Zimmet, & Tuomilehto, et al. (2004). Diet, nutrition and the prevention of type 2 diabetes. Public Health Nutrition, 7, 147-165. http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/PHN2003586

Vinke, H. & Duijn, H. (2011). Diabetes type 2. Amsterdam: Stichting September.

WHO,. (2016). Diabetes. World Health Organization. Retrieved 2 October 2016, from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs312/en/

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