# Ashford University Chemistry Heat Transfer Lab Reports

Thermal conductivity of given test materials –Single plate method
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Heat Transfer Lab (CHEE3101P) 16 Jan 2019
OBJECTIVE
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Heat Transfer Lab (CHEE3101P) 16 Jan 2019
To determine the thermal resistance and thermal conductivity of the given different building materials and
understand the heat conduction process involved.
WORKING PRINCIPLE
A known rate of heat is conducted through a specimen of the material in the form of a slab of cross
sectional area ‘A’ placed between an electric heat source generating heat supply at a constant rate and heat sink (cold
fluid chamber or cooler). The entire assembly is embedded in low conductivity insulation in order to minimize lateral heat
leakage from the exposed surface of the specimen.
PROCEDURE
1. Make sure that the heat flux sensor and the thermocouples for Th and Tc are connected to the display unit
2. Check the water supply and water hoses for incoming water and outgoing water in the cooler unit.
3. In order to insert specimen, turn the spindle anti-clockwise and lifting the heater plate. Place the specimen to be tested
on the cooling plate via the front of the unit.
4. Then clamp the specimen in between the heater plate and cooling plate.
5. Switch on the unit using the main switch. Make sure that the temperature set point on Th is set to 50oC, and then switch
on the heater.
6. Note the temperature readings at frequent intervals till consecutive readings are same indicating that steady state has
been reached.
7. After your experimental work, turn off water supply & main switch and then turn the spindle clockwise and lifting the
heater plate to remove the specimen(s).
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Heat Transfer Lab (CHEE3101P) 16 Jan 2019
FORMULAE
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Heat Transfer Lab (CHEE3101P) 16 Jan 2019
The Fourier’s law of heat conduction is given by
dT
dX = − k A
Where,
temperature
quantity of heat conducted per unit time,
=
=
area of cross section normal to the direction of heat flow [m2] dT
thermal conductivity
=
thickness of test material thickness, [m] k
=
A
= drop,(Th – Tc) [o C] dX
of the material, [W/moC]
EXPERIMENTAL LAYOUT
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Heat Transfer Lab (CHEE3101P) 16 Jan 2019
Time, t
in min
Heat
Flux
/A =q
(W/m²)
Hot Plate
Temperature
Th (ºC)
Cold Plate
Temperature
Tc (ºC)
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
Sl.
No
Test
Sample
Heat
Flux
/A =q
(W/m²)
Hot Plate
Cold Plate
Temperature
Temperature
Temperature
difference
(Th)
(Tc)
(dT)
Thermal
Thermal
conductivity
Resistance
( k)
(Rth)
[W/moC]
[oC/W]
1
2
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Heat Transfer Lab (CHEE3101P) 16 Jan 2019
TABLE OF MEASUREMENTS
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Heat Transfer Lab (CHEE3101P) 16 Jan 2019
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Heat Transfer Lab (CHEE3101P) 16 Jan 2019
of 80
Test material
Dimension
Polystyrene (Expanded)
Poly oxyethylene (POM)
300×300 mm
300×300 mm
Maximum service
temperature °C
60
100
Plaster
Corkboard
PMMA
Armaflex
300×300 mm
300×300 mm
300×300 mm
300×300 mm
100
80
80
70
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Heat Transfer Lab (CHEE3101P) 16 Jan 2019
Figure. 2 Temperature distribution along the Length (heat transfer direction) of slab*
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Heat Transfer Lab (CHEE3101P) 16 Jan 2019
[*A straight line is drawn to fit the data and its slope gives the temperature gradient]
Specification of the test materials
1. Thickness of test sample, dX
=
m
2. Area of the test sample, A
=
m2
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Heat Transfer Lab (CHEE3101P) 16 Jan 2019
MODEL
k
CALCULATION
Q
,
=
A
dTdX
=
=
Rth
o
C/W
dX
=
k.A
=
=
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Heat Transfer Lab (CHEE3101P) 16 Jan 2019
Heat Transfer Lab (CHEE3101P) 16 Jan 2019
S.
No.
Test Material
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Heat Flux
Thermal conductivity, k
(W/m2)
= Q/A(ΔT/ΔX)
1
2
Remarks of the Faculty in-charge:
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Heat Transfer Lab (CHEE3101P) 16 Jan 2019
Date:
Faculty Signature:
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Heat Transfer Lab (CHEE3101P) 16 Jan 2019
TABLE OF RESULTS
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Heat Transfer Lab (CHEE3101P) 16 Jan 2019
ANALYSIS OF RESULTS /
CONCLUSIONS
1.
2
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Heat Transfer Lab (CHEE3101P) 16 Jan 2019
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Heat Transfer Lab (CHEE3101P) 16 Jan 2019
. Forced convection heat transfer in a vertical stainless steel plate
Obtained Mark
OBJECTIVE
To determine the heat transfer coefficient between the given fluid and the solid surface and thereby
compare the heat transfer coefficient with fluid velocity.
EXPERIMENTAL SET UP
The experimental unit consists of a vertical plate made of S.S material enclosed in a rectangular duct open
at both top and bottom. The duct is of sufficient dimensions as not to interfere with the convection process while
at the same time preventing external disturbances to affect the data. The blower/ fan is mounted on the top or
bottom of the duct to enhance the fluid flow over the plate and velocity is measured by anemometer. The surface
temperature of the plate and ambient temperature is measured using thermocouples. The surface of the plate is
polished to minimize radiation heat losses.
SPECIFICATION
Stainless steel plate: height =
mm
width =
mm
PROCEDURE
1. The system is switched on.
2. The amount of heat input is measured by using the wattmeter.
3. The blower is switched on and a particular amount of air flow is fixed.
4. The system is allowed to reach the steady state and the temperatures for the plate and surrounding fluid
medium are noted.
5. The above procedure is repeated for various air flow rates, keeping the heater input same.
FORMULAE
For a vertical plate transferring heat to the surroundings with the aid of velocity at constant heat flux, the following
empirical relations hold.
Heat Transfer Lab (MIME4212P) 16 Jan 2019
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Nux
=
0.453 Re L0.5 . Pr 0.333
for
— Laminar flow
— Turbulent flow
1. Thermal conductivity of solid metals with rise in temperature normally
a. increases
b. decreases
c. remains same
d. may increase or decrease based on temperature
2. which of the following is a case of steady state heat transfer?
a. IC engine
b. Air compressor
c. heating of building in winter
d. cooling of orange in refrigerator
e. all of the above
f. none of the above
3. Thermal conductivity of a material may be defined as the
a. quantity of heat flowing in one second through one cube of material when
opposite faces are maintained at a temperature difference of 1oC
b. quantity of heat following in one second through a slab of the material of
area one cm square, thickness 1 cm when its faces differed in temperature
by 1oC
c. heat conducted in unit time across unit area through unit thickness when
a temperature difference of unity is maintained between opposite faces
d. all of the above
e. none of the above
Heat Transfer Lab (MIME4212P) 16 Jan 2019
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4. When heat is transferred from hot body to cold body, in a straight line, without
affecting the intervening medium, it is referred as heat transfer by
a. conduction
b. convection
d. conduction and convection
5. Emissivity of a white polished body in comparison to a black body is
a. higher
b. lower
c. same
d. depends upon shape of body
e. none of the above
6. A black body is one whose absorptivity
a. varies with temperature
b. varies with wavelength of the incident ray
c. is equal to its emissivity
d. does not vary with temperature and wavelength of incident ray
e. none of the above
7. Heat is closely related with
a. Liquids
b. solids
c. energy
d. temperature
e. enthalpy
f. entropy
8. Select the wrong case. Heat flowing from one side to other depends directly on
a. face area
b. time
c. thickness
d. temperature difference
e. thermal conductivity
9. A black plate is heated by resistance heating by transferring 1.5 A current with a
drop in voltage of 60V when the distance between the plate and radiometer is
15cm. The diameter of the circular black plate is 19mm.If the distance between
the plate and radiometer is doubled what will be the value of Q? (Use inverse
square law).
[3]
Heat Transfer Lab (MIME4212P) 16 Jan 2019
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Black plate
Distance =r
12. Air at 25oC and Pressure of 1.0132 bar is flowing over a flat plate of 1 m long, 0.5
m wide due to density difference. If the plate is at 80oC. Calculate Grashof
number and Type of flow. [4marks]
Criteria for flow type
g=9.81m/s2 ; =
Gr Pr < 1 x 109 Gr Pr > 1 x 109
1.
— Laminar flow
— Turbulent flow
heat conducted through unit area and unit thick face per unit time when
temperature difference between opposite faces is unity is called
a. thermal resistance
b. emissivity
d. heat transfer rate
e. thermal conductivity
2. Heat transfer takes place as per
a. Zeroth law of thermodynamics
b. First law of thermodynamics
c. Second law of thermodynamics
d. Kirchoff’s law
e. Stefan’s law
Heat Transfer Lab (MIME4212P) 16 Jan 2019
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3. When heat is transferred from one particle of hot body to another by actual
motion of the heated particles. it is referred to as heat transfer by
f. conduction
g. convection
i. conduction and convection
4. When heat is transferred from hot body to cold body, in a straight line, without
affecting the intervening medium, it is referred as heat transfer by
k. conduction
l. convection
n. conduction and convection
5. Heat is closely related with
p. Liquids
q. solids
r. energy
s. temperature
t. enthalpy
u. entropy
6. Which of the following is the case of heat transfer by radiation?
v. blast furnace
w. heating of a building
x. cooling of parts of engine
y. heat received by a person from fire place
z. all of the above
Heat Transfer Lab (MIME4212P) 16 Jan 2019
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7. Air, at a pressure of 1 bar is flowing over a flat plate at a velocity of 3 m/s. If the
plate is maintained at 60oC, calculate the heat transfer co-efficient per unit width
of the plate taking the length of the plate along the flow of air is 2 m.
[5]
Air
temperature
oC
W
Hot plate
temperature
oC
Air
Velocity
m/s
Criteria for flow type
Re < 5 x 105 -Laminar flow Nux = 0.332 (Re)0.5 (Pr)0.333 Re > 5 x 105
193.2
20
60
Heat Transfer Lab (MIME4212P) 16 Jan 2019
3
— Turbulent flow
Nux = 0.0296 (Re)0.8 (Pr)0.333
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COURSE ASSESSMENT MARKS DISTRIBUTION
Heat Transfer (MIME4212P) & (CHEE3101P)
PERFORMING EXPERIMENT (Handwritten) – Submit same day [5 Marks]
Experiment Procedure (Complete & Detailed in Own Words)
1
[Marks]
1
Skills (Dexterity in handling equipment)
1
Complete, Well Presented (clean) Data Collection with Teacher’s Signature
1
Initial Partial Calculations (correct clear step by step), Unit Conversions
1
Clean & Maintained Workspace / Equipment
0.5
Attend On Time / Lab Discipline / Safety / Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
0.5
REPORT SUBMISSION (Word Processed) – Submit thru E Learning [10 Marks]
Aim and Experiment Procedure (Complete & Detailed in Own Words)
Equipment / Apparatus / Tools / Components Used
Table & Graphs (complete, correct & clear)
2
[Marks]
1
2
Complete Calculations (correct clear step by step), Unit Conversions
2
Conclusion in Reference to the Aim / Objective of Experiment
1
Remarks based on the Outcome/Evidence & Reasoning with Errors & Uncertainty
2
Assignment correct & complete with proper Reference
1.5
Report Presentation, Correct Format and File type
0.5
2 PRACTICAL ASSESSMENTS (Average) [15 Marks]
[Marks]
Short Questions / Definition / Basic Applications / Equipment Use & Function
5
Procedure / Data Outcome / Graph Interpretation / Equipment Comparison
5
Calculations / Detailed Solutions / Unit Conversions
5
3
Obtained
Marks
Total Marks [30]
*Submission of Manual marking scheme:
Submission Day
a) On Time
b) 1-day Late
c)
2-day Late
d) 3 or more days late
Deduction of Marks
0
3
5
10
Notes:
✓ Lab Experiment should be accomplished on a 2-hour session only.
✓ Failure to comply will be subjected to the *Submission of Manual marking scheme.
✓ Use black or blue pen only. Reduction will be imposed for not following instructions.
✓ In case of absence, only with valid reasons submitted within 1 week are allowed to perform the missed
Laboratory Experiment.
✓ Reports will be uploaded to Turnitin software for Plagiarism.
Heat Transfer Lab (MIME4212P) 16 Jan 2019
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References
1. Solteq, Malaysia: HE110 – Thermal Conductivity of Building Material Apparatus Manual, Equipment for Engineering Education.
2. Solteq, Malaysia: HE106 – Free and Forced Convection Apparatus – Manual,
Equipment for Engineering Education.
3. P.A.Hilton, UK: H111, H111C & H111P –Thermal Radiation Apparatus – Manual,
Equipment for Engineering Education.
4. HT30X/HT30XC Heat Exchanger Service Unit and HT31 Tubular Heat Exchanger
user manual, www.armfield.co.uk
5. Yunus A.Cengel, “Heat Transfer” 2nd Edition Reprint, McGraw Hill Higher
Education, 2002.
6. J. P. Holman, “Heat Transfer” 8th International Edition, McGraw Hill Higher
Education INC, 1997.
7. R. C. Sachdeva, “Fundamentals of Engineering Heat and Mass Transfer” Reprint, New
Age Science, Limited, 2007.
Heat Transfer Lab (MIME4212P) 16 Jan 2019
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Linear Interpolation using Calculator
Suppose you have the following straight line: – and you need to calculate the value of Y?!
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Press Mode Button.
Press 3 “Stat “.
Press 2“A+BX”.
Enter the value of limits in X column, 0 and 20.
Enter the value of limits in Y column, 10 and 5.
Press AC button.
Press Shift.
Press 1.
If you want the value of Y at x = 8.
9. Press 8.
10. Press Shift.
11. Press 1.
12. Press 7” Reg”.
13. Press 5.
14. Press =.
Heat Transfer Lab (MIME4212P) 16 Jan 2019
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1. Press Mode Button.
2. Press “REG “(2)
3. Press “Lin” (1)
4. Press “AC”.
5. Press “shift+Mode”.
6. Press “Scl” (1) and “=” and “AC”.
7. For data entry follow the below steps
a. Enter “X” and “,” and “Y” and press “M+”.
b. Enter “X” and “,” and “Y” and press “M+”.
8. Press AC.
You want the value of Y at x = 8.
9.
Press 8.
10.
Press Shift.
11.
Press 2.
12.
Press replay button right arrow thrice.”>” ”>” ”>”.
13.
Press 2 “ ”.
14.
Press =.
For the next data repeat steps from 6.
Heat Transfer Lab (MIME4212P) 16 Jan 2019
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