Response to Questions
Q4.Contrast between increased urbanization and agrarian concerns
There was an increase in the level of rural to urban migration in the yeas 1865-1900.
Reasons leading to rural-town migration
Many people left their farms and went looking for better job opportunities in the towns and cities. The mass exodus from farming villages to towns was facilitated by an improved infrastructure network. This made it easy and convenient for the people to travel from one point to another. In particular, the railway acted as a convenient transportation conduit of people from the rural areas to the towns. Urbanization was also fuelled by new inventions and technologies of the industrial revolution. The invented farm machinery was convenient and replaced a lot of human labor. The farm workers thus found themselves jobless and they moved to towns to look for other jobs.
Living conditions of the migrants
The economy in the city was still developing at that time and it could not absorb all the rural migrants. This resulted into a rise in the unemployment. The accommodation capacity of the towns had also been stretched beyond its capacity by the high level migration. (Bancroft 1958). This resulted in congestions and some of the town dwellers were forced to live in shanties and in slums. The rapid growth amidst poor urban planning led to overcrowding and shortage of basic facilities such as toilets and health facilities. Due to lack of sanitation and overcrowding, water borne diseases such as cholera wreaked havoc across many cities
How the migrants occupied themselves
As a result of the high unemployment, most migrants who had previously been working found themselves jobless. Consequently, they turned to drug abuse to kill boredom. Many become alcoholics in desperate attempts to escape boredom and cope with stress. Others resulted to engaging in crime. The crime level also arose as a result the police officers being outnumbered by the sea of humanity that flocked the towns.
How the countryside residents fared
Back at the countryside, life was hard for the rural dwellers who were mostly farmers. According to Chad, “The invention of farming equipment and machinery proved to be a curse in disguise.”(20000 The use technology in agricultural production led to overproduction of food. This resulted to low prices of agricultural produce. (Stewart, 1865).The prices of non-agricultural goods were not falling and this made life in the countryside even harder.
Measures adopted by countryside residents to help themselves
The farmers formed cooperatives, associations and political parties to protest against their declining revenues.
How successful were countryside dwellers?
These cooperatives, associations and political parties helped the farmers as they lobbied for enactment of laws that led to regulation of prices of farm produce.
Imperialism refers to the projection of a country’s power and influence through political diplomacy or military conquest. USA has been able to exert influence throughout the word in the spheres of politics, economics and culture
In what areas did the United States first exert influence?
The American Imperialism traces its way back to the time when the United States annexed California from Mexico in 1846. The Americans then annexed Hawaii in 1898 and consequently converted it into a state of the USA. From then henceforth, USA has continued its imperialism campaigns across the globe.
Root Causes of American overseas expansion
Social Darwinism has greatly shaped USA ambitions for overseas expansion. Social Darwinism influences the USA into believing that it is the epicenter of industrialization and democracy. It thus seeks to propagate the ideas of industrialization and democracy through overseas expansion.
Who opposed US expansion?
The imperialistic tendencies of USA were rejected by some of her citizens. One of these groups is the American Anti-Imperialist League that was established in 1888. This group was dissolved in 1920 and is seen as largely failing to meet its goals. It was not in a position to prevent the invasion of Philippines.
What did the country do to this opposition?
The United States allowed the Anti-Imperialist League to discharge its mandate freely without any intimidation or restrictions.
How successful is was the United States imperialism?
The USA imperialism has been a huge success. Through imperialism, the USA has been able to project its political, cultural and economic power far beyond its territorial boundaries. Considering that the USA was the main force behind the formation of international bodies such as the United Nations and the International Monetary Fund(IMF), its imperialism will continue to be felt around the globe for days to come.
Bancroft, G. (1958).American labor force: Its growth and changing composition.
Chad. (2000).Southern Migrants, Northern Exiles.
William, C.J. (1992). When the tide turned: Immigration and the delay of the great migration. Journal of Economic History, 607-632
Stewart, James. “The Economics of America Farm Unrest, 1865-1900.”E.H.Net Encyclopedia.URL http://eh.net/encyclopedia/the -economics-of-american-farm-unrest-1865-1900/
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