Columbus Technical College Classification of Bones Worksheet

Classification of BonesClassify each of the bones below as being either long, short, flat, or irregular. Also classify each
bone as belonging to the axial or appendicular skeleton.
Bone name
Bone shape
Axial or Appendicular?
Parietal bone
Bone markings
Name the marking that goes along with the description. Give an example of where you would
find the marking (the first one is done for you).
Gross Anatomy of the Typical Long Bone
Match the key terms to their description below and use the terms to label the image below.
_____ end portion of a long bone
_____ helps reduce friction at joints
_____ site of blood cell formation
_____ two membranous sites of osteoprogenitor cells
_____ scientific term for bone shaft
_____ contains yellow marrow in adult bones
_____ growth plate remnant
_____ composed of adipose tissue and is important in
energy storage
a. Articular cartilage
b. Compact bone
c. Diaphysis
d. Endosteum
e. Epiphyseal line
f. Epiphysis
g. Medullary cavity
h. Nutrient artery
i. Perforating (Sharpey’s) fibers
j. Periosteum
k. Red marrow
l. Spongy bone
m. Yellow bone marrow
Microscopic Structure of Compact Bone
Several descriptions of bone structure are given below, identify the structure involved by
choosing the appropriate key term from the box below. Then, on the photomicrograph of
bone, identify all structures named in the box below and draw a circle around a single osteon.
Central canal
_____ layer of bony matrix
around a central canal
_____ site of osteocytes
_____ longitudinal canal carrying
blood vessels, lymphatics, and
_____ the basic histological unit
of compact bone
_____ tiny canals connecting
osteocytes within an osteon
Exercises: 8 & 9
*The names/terms must be spelled correctly
1. Exercise 8: Be able to visually, verbally and in writing locate and/or describe
the functions and locations of the following structures when observing a slide,
diagram or model of compact bone:
Compact Bone:
 Central Canal (Haversian
 Lacunae
 Canaliculi
 Lamellae
 Perforating (sharpey’s
 Osteocytes
 Osteocytes in lacunae
 Osteon (Haversian system)
 Volkmann’s canal
/Transverse canal
 Periosteum
1. Diaphysis
2. Epiphysis
 Epiphyseal Plate/Lines
Periosteum Compact Bone
3. Articular Cartilage
4. Nutrient arteries
5. Medullary Cavity
6. Endosteum
7. Location of yellow and red bone
 Spongy bone
Spongy Bone:
 Trabeculae (spicules)
2. Bone Histology: Be prepared to identify visually, verbally, and in writing the
following histological tissues: hyaline cartilage, compact and spongy bone. Be
prepared to provide examples of where these tissues are found.
3. Be prepared to identify visually, verbally, and in writing for the following:
1. The ‘name’ of the bone

If the bone is comprised of fused bones, know the fused bone’s name
and the individual bones that make up the fused bone
2. To which ‘division’ of the ‘skeleton’ it belongs

3. Into which of the ‘categories’ of bone it falls



Os Coxae: pubic, ischium, ilium
4. If the bone is Left or Right


Exercise 9 & 10: Axial & Appendicular skeleton
1. Be prepared to identify visually, verbally, and in writing all of the bones, bone
markings which make up the cranium and face.
Skull (Cranium):
 Ethmoid (air cells) sinuses
 Calvaria (cranial vault)
 Superior and middle nasal conchae
 Cranial floor (base): anterior,
middle, & posterior cranial
 Fetal skull/Fontanelles:
 Anterior
 Posterior
Cranial bones: 8 bones
 Sphenoidal
Frontal: (1)
 Mastoid
 Supraorbital foramen
 Frontal sinuses
 Glabella
 Squamous
Parietal (2)
 Sagittal
Temporal: (2)
 Lambdoid
 Mastoid process
 Coronal (frontal)
 External auditory (acoustic)
Facial Bones: 14 bones
 Zygomatic process
Nasal (2)
 Mandibular fossa
 Styloid process
Maxilla: (2)
 Petrous portion – Jugular
 Maxillary sinus
foramen, Carotid canal, Internal
 Palatine process
auditory (acoustic) meatus
 Infraorbital foramen
 Anterior nasal spine
Occipital: (1)
 Alveolar process
 Foramen magnum
 Occipital condyles
Mandible: (1)
 External occipital protuberance
 Angle
 Superior/middle/inferior nuchal
 Body
 Ramus of mandible
 Condyle
Sphenoid: (1)
 Coronoid process
 Greater & lesser wings
 Mandibular notch
 Hypophyseal fossa
 Mandibular foramen
 Sella turcica
 Alveolar process
 Sphenoid sinuses
 Mental foramen
 Optic canal
 Superior & Inferior orbital
Lacrimal bone (2)
 Pterygoid processes (medial &
Palatine bone: (2)
 Vomer (1)
Ethmoid: (1)
 Crista galli
 Cribriform plate
 Perpendicular plate
Inferior nasal conchae (turbinate) (2)
Zygomatic bone: (2)
 Zygomatic process
2. Hyoid: Be able to identify the structures of the hyoid bone:

Greater horn
Lesser horn
3. Sternum: Be prepared to visually, verbally, and in writing identify the fused
bones of the sternum:

Sternal angle
Xiphisternal joint
Xiphoid process
Costal cartilage
Claviclar notch
Jugular notch
4. Ribs: know visually, verbally, and in writing differences between:
 True ribs (1-7) – Vertebrosternal ribs
 False ribs (8-12) – Vertebrochondral ribs
 Floating ribs (11-12)
5. Vertebral Column: Be prepared to identify visually, verbally, and in writing
differences between cervical, thoracic and lumbar vertebrae. Also, be recall the
amount of vertebrae that are classified in each group. Also be able to identify C1 (Atlas)
and C2 (Axis) by their specific names and know what they appear like visually.
Typical Vertebrae:
Thoracic Vertebrae (T1-T12)
 Body
 Spinous Process
 Pedicle
 Transverse Process
 Lamina
 Transverse Costal Facet for Rib
 Transverse process
 Inferior Costal Facet for Rib
 Vertebral foramen
 Costal cartilage
 Intervertebral foramen
Lumbar Vertebrae (L1-L5)
 Superior articular process
 Superior Articular Processes
 Inferior articular process
 Inferior Articular Processes
 Transverse Process
Atypical Vertebrae:
C1 – Atlas – Anterior tubercle/Posterior
 Spinous Process
tubercleC2 – Axis – Dens (Odontoid
Sacrum (5 fused bones)
 Ala
Cervical Vertebrae (C1-C7)
 Auricle surface
 Transverse Foramen
 Dorsal and Ventral Sacral Foramina
 Vertebral Foramen
 Median/Lateral Sacral Crest
 Spinous Process
 Sacral promontory ala(e)
 Dens (odontoid process) of the Axis
 Sacral canal
 C7 spinous process (vertebral
Coccyx (4 fused bones)
6. Pectoral Girdle, Arm & Forearm: Be prepared to visually, verbally, and
in writing identify the pectoral girdle and forearm:
 Sternal end
 Acromial end
 Conoid tubercle
 Glenoid Cavity
 Acromion process
 Coracoid Process
 Spine of scapula
 Scapula notch
 Subscapular fossa
 Supraspinous fossa
 Infraspinous fossa
 Head of Humerus
 Lesser tubercle
 Greater tubercle
 Neck: anatomical & surgical
 Intertubercular/bicipital groove
 Deltoid tuberosity
 Medial and Lateral Epicondyles
 Capitulum – articulates with
 Trochlea – articulates with ulna
 Coronoid fossa
 Radial fossa Olecranon fossa
 Olecranon Process
 Coronoid Process
 Trochlear notch
 Ulnar tuberosity
 Styloid process
 Interosseous membrane
 Head
 Head
 Neck
 Radial tuberosity
 Styloid process
 Ulna notch
 1-5
Phalanges (phalanx):
 Pollex: Proximal, Distal
 Proximal, Middle, & Distal (14 each
7. Hand/Carpal Bones: Be prepared to visually, verbally, and in writing
identify all of the bones of the hand/Carpal:
Proximal row:
 Scaphoid
 Lunate
 Triquetrum
 Pisiform (anterior to triquetrum)
Distal row:
 Trapezium
 Trapezoid
 Capitate
 Hamate
8. Pelvic Girdle, Leg, and Foot: Be prepared to visually, verbally, and in writing
identify the following structures:
Pelvic Girdle
 Iliac Crest
 Sacroiliac joint
 Iliac fossa
 Anterior superior iliac spine
 Anterior inferior iliac spine
 Posterior superior iliac spine
 Posterior inferior iliac spine
 Greater sciatic notch
 Lesser sciatic notch
 Pubic symphysis
 Pubic tubercle
 Acetabulum
 Ischial spine
 Ischial Tuberosity
 Obturator Foramen

Intercondylar fossa
Lateral epicondyle
medial epicondyle
Lateral condyle
Medial condyle
 Intercondylar eminence
 Lateral condyle
 Medial condyle
 Tibial Tuberosity
 Interosseous membrane
 Anterior border
 Medial malleolus
 Head of Fibula
 Lateral malleolus
Be prepared to visually, verbally, and in
writing differentiate between a male
 Trochlear surface of Talus
 Tuberosity of Calcaneus
female pelvis.

 Fovea capitis
 1-5
Phalanges (phalanx):
 Head
 Neck
 Hallux: Proximal, distal
 Greater trochanter
 Proximal, middle, distal (14 each foot)
 Lesser trochanter
 Linea aspera
9. Foot/Tarsal Bones: Be prepared to visually, verbally, and in writing
identify all of the bones of the foot:
Proximal row:
Distal row:
 Calcaneus
 Medial Cuneiform
 Talus
 Intermediate Cuneiform
Middle row:
 Lateral Cuneiform
 Navicular
 Cuboid

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