With the high development in technology, there are many communication tools that can be used by emergency management centers for successful operations. Some of the tools that can be used and are the best to reach a large number of people are reverse 911, siren systems, loud speakers, use call centers and traveler information (Using Highways During Evacuation for Events with Advance Notice, 2017).
The emergency management center can collaborate with the government to use the reverse 911 system. This system allows government agencies to place thousand telephone calls at the same time to people with local phone service. The calls can be used to warn people in case of an emergence. The company can also create a similar emergency system for reaching as many people as possible (Using Highways During Evacuation for Events with Advance Notice, 2017).
Siren systems can be used especially in areas that are prone to tsunamis and similar natural calamities. The sirens can be used to reach a large number of residents alerting them to act fast to ensure they are safe. The sirens are normally installed in different parts of a community to ensure they reach as many people as possible (Using Highways During Evacuation for Events with Advance Notice, 2017).
Loud speakers can be installed on posts in all parts of the community. The speakers are used to broadcast information. Public service vehicle like police cars can also be used to broadcast emergency information with speakers as they move around the area where the information might be required. The emergency management center should ensure they have enough vehicles to perform these tasks and enough speakers and in good condition (Using Highways During Evacuation for Events with Advance Notice, 2017).
The emergency management can also come up with call centers where people can call free of charge in case of an emergency. The call centers can be used to provide information to people in cases of an emergency. The call centers should have enough staff and equipment to ensure they can be able to take care of all emergencies (Using Highways During Evacuation for Events with Advance Notice, 2017).
The emergency management centers can adopt the traveler information especially when saving people in an evacuation. Many states have robust 511 or other traveler systems which are used to aid evacuees who have access to landline or cellular telephones before or during the evacuation (Using Highways During Evacuation for Events with Advance Notice, 2017).
Challenges for acquiring, using and maintaining the component or capability
The emergence management center can face some challenges when acquiring, using and maintaining the communication tools. Some of the challenges are, a lot of money may be require to buy, operating and maintain the equipment which might be too high for the organization to raise. The equipment might require skilled personnel to operate and thus skilled person are needed who might be expensive to employ or it might be expensive to educate employees on how to use such equipment. It might also be hard for first responders to use the equipment making it important to educate the public on how to use some of the equipment (Wise, 2010)
The value the component add to planned operations
The communication components are very important in planned operations. This is because it helps in monitoring information flow which can help establish situational awareness which is the ability to identify, process and understand critical elements of a situation. Also being able to get information fast can help determine where people are located, access victim needs and alert people on emerging threats. It is also very important as it helps in saving lives and reducing damages as the information obtained can be used to direct resource to places they are highly required. The proper communication is also very important as it helps officials compile the list of the dead and injured and also contact the victims’ family and friends (Lindsay, 2011)
Cost involved with the component
There are many costs that are involved with the communication tools which include traditional costs such as training, maintenance and the purchasing cost. There is money used in training individuals on how to operate and use the tools of communication. Money is also required to maintain the equipment in good condition. Other costs include the cost of loss of control, reliability and trust. When the equipment are bought support systems should also be provided such as the radio frequencies which are used in transmission of information (Murray, 2012)
To avoid more than one satellite being visible to a ground relay station, radio frequencies of one system are allocated so that overlapping visibility contours are not assigned the same frequency and thus avoiding overlapping (Grybos, & Marshall, 1999).
For a case where multiple requirements are involved, a multi-use radio service which is a private two way short distance communication service. The users must use the five channels provided to avoid interference to other users. All users are expected to respond to emergencies and none of the users has priority over the other. A license is required for the operation of the radio frequency services which is paid annually. The current licensing fee is $70.
There are other laws and regulations that must be accommodated in the radio licenses which are as follows. All radio apparatus must be licensed. There is also a separate fee for each transmit and each receive frequency. The other rule is that the radio station licensees are to inform the department of any changes they make to their radio stations such as change of location, frequency, power level, antenna height or pattern. License fee must also be paid before the radio license can be issued. It is also stated that a license amendment will be free of charge if the location and type of service does not change.
Federal Communications Commission,. (2017). Personal Radio Services (PRS) – Keeping in Touch. Federal Communications Commission. Retrieved 3 March 2017
, from https://www.fcc.gov/consumers/guides/personal-radio-services-prs-keeping-touch
Grybos, D. P., & Marshall, J. M. (1999). U.S. Patent No. 5,926,758. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office
.Lindsay, B. R. (2011). Social media and disasters: Current uses, future options, and policy considerations.
Murray, J. (2012). Managing Crises and Disasters with Emerging Technologies: Advancements: Advancements (1st ed.). IGI Global, 2012.
Using Highways During Evacuation Operations for Events with Advance Notice. (2017). Federal Highway Administration. Retrieved 2 March 2017, from https://ops.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/evac_primer/21_communication.htm
Wise, D. (2010). Emergency Communications: Vulnerabilities Remain and Limited Collaboration and Monitoring Hamper Federal Efforts (1st ed.). Washington: DIANE Publishing, 2010.
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