Concepts And Theories Of Health Behavior

The County Health Rankings and Roadmaps program is generally, a collaboration between the University of Wisconsin Population Health Institute and Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. The County Health Rankings measure vital health factors such as smoking, obesity, unemployment, high school graduation rates, income inequality, and access to healthy foods, the quality of water and air, and births in every county in the United States (Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2016). These yearly rankings provide a see-through snapshot of how where we play, live, and learn influence health.  The county health rankings is a population health checkup for the over 3000 counties in the United States. The health of every county is ranked within its state—from the healthiest to least healthy — employing, a model that recapitulates the overall health outcomes of every country and the factors contributing to health (Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2016). The key objective of the rankings is to muster action toward community health by stirring interests among the policymakers and media. The current rankings are an extension of the 2003 – 2008 yearly Wisconsin County Health Rankings to the entire U.S.

The adult smoking rate is at 10% in the Orange, CA County.  Adult obesity, physical inactivity, excessive drinking rate is 20%, 16%, and 18% respectively. The Orange County is ranked 5 out of 57 in health behaviors (Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2016).

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I currently stay in Richland Count in South Carolina State. The county has a total population of 407,051. Regarding health outcomes, the county is ranked position 10 out of 46. The county is ranked position 7 out of 46 in terms of length of life. It also recorded about 7500 premature deaths annually and had 15% of its populace having poor or fair health. The prevalence of poor physical health days is projected at 3.7 while poor mental health days stands at 4.2. Out of childbirths in this county, there are 11% low birth weights.  The county health factors are ranked at 8 out of 46. The county is ranked position 15 out of 46 in terms of health behavior (Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2016).

The adult smoking rate in the county is 16%, and obesity prevalence rate is at 33%.  The food environmental index is 6.2.  About 21% of people living in this county do not engage in physical activity while 18% of the population engages in excessive drinking.  About 838 people have sexually transmitted diseases, and teen births are at 26. Deaths associated with driving under the influence of alcohol was at 45% (Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2016).

Regarding clinical care, the county is ranked at a position out of 46. Only 13% of the people living in this county are insured. Each primary care physician is serving 1,180 people, each dentist serves 1,210 persons, and each mental health providers serve 370 individuals. Cases of preventable hospitals stays were at 33.  Mammography screening is at 65%, and diabetes monitoring is at 85% (Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2016).

In terms of social and economic factors, the county is ranked at position 19 out of 46 in the state of South Carolina.  The high school graduation is at 63%, and unemployment rate within the county is at 7.2%.  About 22% of children in the county languish in poverty, and the income inequality is at 4.7. About 44% of children in the count is under single parenting. The county reported 838 violent crime cases while injury deaths were 60 (Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2016). The county is ranked position 11 out of 46. Cases of severe housing problems within the county stand at 18%, and about 79% of people drive alone to work (Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2016).

Risk factors

A risk factor is a characteristic, attribute or exposure of a person that increases his probability of developing an injury or a disease (Glanzet al., 2008).  Behavioral risk factors are those that people have most ability to change or modify.  Biochemical risk factors are generally bodily states often influenced by behavioral risk factors. Examples of risk factors include high blood pressure, tobacco consumption, alcohol consumption, overweight or obesity, underweight, unsafe water, unsafe sex, poor sanitation and hygiene, impaired fasting glucose, abnormal blood lipids, poor physical activity, and lack of fruit and vegetable consumption.

The risks factors for obesity: Obesity results from a combination of causes as well as contributing factors. These risks factors include genetics, poor lifestyle, physical inactivity, medical problems, unhealthy diet, quitting smoking, pregnancy, social and economic issues, lack of sleep, and age (Glanz,n.d.).

The risks factors of smoking and alcohol consumption are stress, associating with bad company, social and economic status.  Risks factors associated with physical inactivity includes busy work schedule, age, and pregnancy.

The Center for Disease and Control (CDC)

The CDC is generally a national agency that conducts as well as supports health promotion, prevention, as well as preparedness activities in America, with the main objective of enhancing overall public health. It provides detailed information about health outcomes of each county in the United States (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014). The CDC normally works 24/7 to protect the United States from health, security threats, and safety. The CDC has all the information about health issues affecting Americans. The objective of CDC is to help citizens and communities fight any health issue affecting them (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014).


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2014). The behavioral risk factor surveillance system. Retrieved from

Glanz, K. (n.d.) Social and behavioral theories. Retrieved from Also available as pdf at

Glanz, K., Rimer, B.K., &Viswanath, K. (Eds.) (2008). Health behavior and health education: Theory, research, and practice (4th ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (2016). County health rankings & roadmaps. Retrieved from

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