Preparation for Exam 2 Chemistry 100B Winter 2022Chapter 8-10: Atomic Spectroscopy
Singlet vs Triplet – impact on orbital energy
Atomic Absorption, atomic emission and atomic fluorescence
Factors that Effect Atomic Line Widths
Temperature and Atomic Spectra: Absorption versus Emission
Nebulizers (flame and plasma) versus Electrothermal (Graphite Furnace)
Analyzing Solid Samples Directly
Flame Atomization: Know the Processes in the Flame
Structure of the Flame with Temperature and Oxidation
Impact of Gas Composition on Temperature
Compare Flame and Electrothermal atomization in terms of efficiency, sensitivity,
precision and duty cycle.
The Hollow Cathode Lamp: Know the parts, operation and Pros and cons of this source.
List the Background Correction Techniques and how they correct background absorption
What are the potential spectral and chemical interferences and how are they overcome.
How is it different from Absorption and Emission?
Pros and Cons
Describe the structure and operation of an ICP
Describe the difference between a Sequential, Direct Reader and Multichannel
Why is an Echelle Grating the proper match resolution required and the for the 2D
format of the CID and CCD
Advantages of Emission over Absorption: Multielement, speed, sensitivity and LDR, at a
much higher cost
Chapter 13-15: Molecular UV Vis Spectroscopy – Absorbance and Fluorescence
Beer’s Law: Know the terms and assumptions
Reasons for Deviations from Beer’s Law
Impact of Noise and stray light on Instrument Performance
Slits: Qualitative versus Quantitative Analysis
Common Sources based on Spectral Region and application
Single Beam versus Double Beam Instruments
Impact of pH
Solving 2 component mixtures
Relate structure and functional groups in a molecule to absorption profile and strength
Consider Shielding, conjugation and complexation
Impacts of Solvent polarity, pH
Jablonski Diagram: Know the processes and the timing and link to the spectral
phenomena. Deactivation and spectral processes
Know the distinction between Fluorescence and Phosphorescence at the bulk and
Factors Effecting Fluorescence: Structure, Rigidity, Temperature, pH, Viscosity,
Intersystem Crossing, Solvent, Quenching
Stern Volmer Equation
Resonance versus red shifted Fluorescence
Filter versus grating spectrophotometers
Chapters 11 and 20: Mass Spectrometry
Basic Layout of Mass Spec
Why the Need for Vacuum?
The Sources: Gas versus Desorption, Hard versus Soft.
Know the structure and function of the EI, CI, APCI, APPI, ESI, MALDI, SIMS FAB, ICP
The Analyzers: Sectors (electric and Magnetic), Quadrupole, TOF, Trap, ICR Orbitrap
Link m/z to experimental parameters- Know equation when relevant
MS – MS (MSn)
Analyzing Mass Spectra: the relationships to energy, ion stability and isotopic
Vocab: Molecular Ion, Bass Peak, Resolution
The assigned HW, lectures and Chromacademy tutorials will be representative of the
exam question depth.
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