Teaching strategies involve a set of principles, beliefs or ideas that relate to the nature of learning and they are translated into the classroom. Early childhood educators have particular philosophies and approaches to education. There are different types of preschool programs for children. These include Constructivism, Head Start, High Scope, Creative Curriculum, and Project Approach, Reggio, Montessori, and Waldorf. Each method is discussed as below:
The Montessori Approach
Maria Montessori opened her first school in 1907, and she was the first physician woman in Italy. According to Montessori, the role of the teachers was to observe and connect the child with the suitable materials. Montessori considered her method scientific due to the use of subjective observation in a prepared environment. The environment set-up of this approach is to ensure that children are comfortable in the environment. Program goal of Montessori is to provide an environment that is prepared with self – correcting materials for work and to support the child. Montessori first view of the child is care and support. It is apparent that Montessori’s are structured into both charter and public schools (Roopnarine and Johnson, 2013).
The High Scope Approach
High Scope method was founded in 1970. It is a foundation that is independent, and its mission was to promote the learning and development of children in the world. Also, it had to support or train both parents and educators as they help children learn. In High Scope, a creative exploration is encouraged in children. In this approach, children learn by repetition instead of trial and error. The teacher’s role has an exemplified method of teaching which supports constructivists’ beliefs. As a result, children learn through active connection with people, events, and ideas. The environmental use of High Scope classroom involves materials –rich learning. These materials are labeled to assist children in learning the organizational skills.
The Reggio Approach
Teacher’s role in this approach was to carry out a process of collaborative examination and analysis of teaching and learning about children. Reggio approach is involved from a different culture. It is a method that encourages children exploration. The environmental use of this approach is similar to that of Montessori. It is supposed that beauty helps with concentration. The Reggio schools create a homelike environment that enables children to feel more comfortable. According to cultural responsiveness, Reggio has become popular in the early childhood field (Roopnarine and Johnson, 2013).
The Head Start Approach
Head start method is a used to support the children development comprehensively. These programs are based in centers and schools. Head start approach offers various services that depend on the needs of the local community. Children’s growth and development is supported in a learning environment. The teacher’s role is to teach children in homes and schools. Most family members apply to the program as it is responsive to the ethnic, cultural and linguistic heritage of each child. The philosophy of this approach is to enhance children’s learning, health and the family well-being (Bovill and Felten, 2011).
The Project Approach
In this approach, there are set of teaching strategies which help teachers to guide students by giving them in -depth information about real life topics. Teacher’s role is to implement the approach. As the name suggests, project approach encourages children to engage their minds. It involves learning which extends beyond the classroom and in –depth investigation is done on the real world topics. The project approach helps students to participate and contribute to a democratic society. A common belief in project method is that student goes to school on a quest to learn and understand their experiences.
The Constructivism Approach
Constructivism belief is that learning occurs when learners actively participate in meaning and knowledge construction process rather than passively receiving information. It is an approach that encourages critical thinking. Teacher’s role is to facilitate the learning process which students are encouraged to be responsible and autonomous. In constructivism approach, the use of the environment is democratic. As a result, the activities are interactive and student centered. The program goal of the constructivist classroom is to benefit both students and teachers (Roopnarine and Johnson, 2013).
The Creative Curriculum and Waldorf Approach
The creative curriculum offers opportunities that help teachers to meet the need of every learner. Teachers also gain valuable insights into the best practices for early childhood education. The primary goal of this approach is to help children succeed in life and school. Teacher’s role in the creative curriculum is to encourage and support every learner through the use of tools provided. Waldorf approach also involves the childhood education. Waldorf teachers have a role in developing subject matter through drawing, poetry, drama, and painting (Bovill and Felten, 2011).
In conclusion, the above -mentioned approaches are worth of respect in education. Both teachers and children benefit from these approaches as they encourage learning in and out of the classroom.
Bovill, C., Cook‐Sather, A., & Felten, P. (2011). Students as co‐creators of teaching approaches, course design, and curricula: implications for academic developers. International Journal for Academic Development, 16(2), 133-145.
Roopnarine, J., & Johnson, J. E. (2013). Approaches to early childhood education.
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