Disaster Management

Review the ideas and share thoughts on literature and methodology to improve the quality and depth of work.

Family Emergency preparedness plan for first responders in Saudi Red Crescent
Family Emergency preparedness plan for first responders in Saudi Red Crescent
A significant statement of the purpose of the project
First responders face substantial risks in their line of duty quite often. However, most of
the first responders do not have an emergency plan for their families in case things go wrong,
and either succumb to injuries or become incapacitated. During a disaster, everyone is worried
about their family, including first responders. In order to deal with this worry, the responders
must develop a family emergency preparedness plan that allows them to ensure their families are
safe while at the same time doing their jobs. It is not easy for first responders to concentrate on
their work if they do not have the peace of mind that their families are in safety. Therefore, a
family emergency plan for first responders is of vital importance because it enhances safety and
security not only for the first responder but also for the family (Bullock, Haddow and Coppola,
2013). The first responders should have a written plan in advance that should be easy to
coordinate between them and their families. A family emergency preparedness plan increases the
first responder’s sense of security and peace of mind, and this will ensure that he or she is ready
to offer quality work during an emergency.
In order to deal with this gap, this project aims at using an educational program for first
responders and the respective organizations. The program will target first responders, especially
those working with the Saudi Red Crescent Authority (Saudi Red Crescent Authority – IFRC,
2017). The program will provide information regarding the significance of a first responder’s
family emergency preparedness plan for this group of professionals. The program will be
achieved through a series of workshops and seminars for all first responders working with the
Red Crescent in Saudi Arabia and their respective families. The program will educate first
responders and their families on how to secure valuables, ensure health safety, obtain insurance
coverage, develop a family communication plan, and develop a family emergency kit. The
participants will also be taught how to share information with the neighbors, take care of the
vulnerable family members, plan on how to access evacuation services, seek safe shelter, and
access evacuation during an emergency.
Need for the project, including literature support
First responders have a responsibility to their families just like everyone else. However,
at the same time, the first responders must respond to an emergency due to the nature of their
work. A first responder would be prone to trauma and stress if their families’ are not cared for in
advance. This is why first responders need to develop a family preparedness plan that will allow
them to focus on serving the public (Bullock, Haddow and Coppola, 2013). Indeed, first
responders must take appropriate steps to prepare themselves and their families in advance so
that they can perform their jobs when a disaster strikes.
The first responder’s mental preparedness is affected by their families. Most of them are
worried that their families may be vulnerable or affected by the emergency, and thus it may
divert their attention from serving the public as stipulated. Hence, its essential for the first
responders and the families to be guided on an effective family emergence plan for more safety.
For example, the Saudi Red Crescent has at least 700 Emergency Medical Technicians (EMT)
and over 200 active volunteers (Saudi Red Crescent Authority – IFRC, 2017). These first
responders work in close collaboration with other first responders such as World Health
Organization to respond to emergencies whenever they happen. These individuals are also prone
to attacks if the 9/11 attacks in the United States are anything to go by. Most of the first
responders faced significant danger because they were not aware of the impending attacks that
were to follow. The first responders in Saudi Red Crescent lack the family preparedness plan for
their families (Saudi Red Crescent Authority – IFRC, 2017). Hence, most of them and their
families are prone to the uncertainty that occurs during emergencies. These individuals make up
the first line of defense, and thus they require enlightenment that will provide the information on
how to develop a family preparedness plan.
First responders are more prone to stress and worry whenever they realize that they have
not created an emergency plan for their family, pets, and their homes (Management Association;
Information Resources, 2018). This, coupled with the witnessing of human suffering, risk of
personal harm, intense workload, making life and death decisions, and the thought of separation
from their families can be traumatic for them. As a result, they may be subject to making the
wrong decisions at work, lacking concentration, and making the wrong calls (Haddow, Bullock
and Coppola, 2010). This project should provide certainty and crucial information for first
responders and their families. Indeed, prior planning is of great importance because it allows the
first responders the space required to focus on public service with great assurance and zeal. A
first responder plan enables the first responder and the family to identify the disaster and hazard
that is most likely to affect their area. This way, they are then able to develop a viable warning
system and know how to prepare for it when they face an unexpected situation.
The first responder who obtains insurance for their family and home stands a better
chance of working optimally as opposed to those who do not have such a plan (Management
Association; Information Resources, 2018). Developing a family communication plan will be an
important lesson for first responders since most of them do not have a plan to contact each other.
Most often, at times, the first responder’s family may be in different locations at work, school, or
even within the city (Management Association; Information Resources, 2018). The family
preparedness plan allows the family members to develop a strategy on how they will
communicate with each other, seek rescue services, and an evacuation plan if needed (Haddow,
Bullock and Coppola, 2010). A family communication plan is a vital part of this program that
will enhance the safety and continuity of the first responder. This education program will also
train first responders about how to make a family emergency supply kit. This prepares the family
members on how they can survive on their own for a certain period of time before they can get
the necessary assistance. For example, during an emergency, the family members need to know
how to collect food, water, and clothing supplies before they can be evacuated to a safer location.
A family preparedness plan program will enable the first responders to feel at ease with
their family’s preparedness and, most importantly, with themselves (Management Association;
Information Resources, 2018). One’s thought about the family presence provides personal sense
of security, peace of mind, and fulfillment, and thus, one can work undeterred. First responders’
performance is based on knowing their family safety before they focus on their jobs. This
program aims at ensuring a more resilient team of first responders at Red Crescent. The family
preparedness plan training is important since it allows the first responders to give their job the
first priority instead of their families in case of an emergency. This increases the efficiency in
dealing with public hazards and developing a strategy to respond to hazards and other threats in
their line of work.
Involving families in the program allows them to access vital information that will be
developed from the first respondent to the entire family. Early family involvement allows them
to stockpile the required amount of food, water, and clothing and even secure the most valuable
property. This will alleviate the first responder’s concerns from their families to their jobs.
Family involvement allows the first responder to feel confident that in case things get out of
hand, their families will still be safe. Thus they do not have to make dilemma decisions between
their jobs and family obligations because they will always choose the latter (Management
Association; Information Resources, 2018). This education program will allow the first
responders to deal with the impact of family concerns and the ability of the responders to report
faster to the scene of the disaster. The first responder will plan with their families and eliminate
the fear that their family members may be dead, injured, or unable to reach out to help during a
disaster. First responders and their families will benefit from this program because they will
know how to develop an emergency plan, how to identify hazards, inform their families, prepare,
implement the plan, and how to stay alert for emergency information.
Literature review
The world is full of uncertainties and unforeseen threats. At any given time, calm can be
replaced with chaos and unimaginable uncertainty from a natural disaster, shooters in malls,
nuclear poisoning, or terrorist attacks. In an emergency, there are always people who are the first
to arrive and help with the rescue efforts to save lives and enhance the security and wellbeing of
the victims. First responders are individuals, volunteers, organizations, and professionals who are
among the first people to respond to an emergency. Their main objective is to provide the
necessary assistance to affected parties during an emergency, either due to an accident, a natural
disaster, a terrorist attack (Haddow, Bullock and Coppola, 2010). First responders may include
paramedics, emergency medical professionals, police officers, firefighters, rescuers, and
volunteers from the general public. There is no doubt that first responders play a crucial role in
disaster preparedness and response.
A family emergency preparedness plan is, without a doubt- a valuable strategy for first
responders (Management Association; Information Resources, 2018). However, what is of more
significant concern is the lack of support for first responders from their parent organizations
(Haddow, Bullock and Coppola, 2010). First responders find it challenging to separate their
personal lives and their jobs. For example, a first responder may have to choose between family
and duty during disasters. This creates an unhealthy dilemma that affects the morale and
concentration of the first responder. The mental health of first responders is always under severe
pressure during emergency times. Further, letting them worry about their family’s safety is a sure
strategy to fail on their part as most of them will always prioritize their family’s safety at the
expense of their essential jobs (Haddow, Bullock and Coppola, 2010). The training program for
first responders will aim at instilling knowledge and sensitize the first responders on another
aspect of how disasters affect their wellbeing, especially with their families on the line.
According to the research conducted by Management Association, first responders are
frequently involved in high stress and threatening situations and are well connected to their
families stood at an elevated risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder. The children of
first responders are also more likely to experience high-stress levels whenever their parents
attend their jobs (Haddow, Bullock and Coppola, 2010). This shows that the tie of first
responders to their family is stronger more than their job. This means that the family members
of the first responders are always concerned not only about the first responder but about their
own fate in case of a disaster. This relationship is also similar to the part of the first responder
since they fear that the disaster may affect their families as well.
The effectiveness of this program will rely on the ability of the trainers passing vital
knowledge to the first responders in a way they can replicate the same information to their
families. This is because the information is the power that can be used to empower not only first
responders but also their families and the local community. The first responder needs to learn to
acquire the information so that the information can be passed on to their families. Past studies
show that specialized training and preparedness during disasters are vital as they enable
individuals to be emotionally ready for the realities that may be faced during disasters, and
hence, better outcomes become more likely (Haddow, Bullock and Coppola, 2010). For the first
responders, personal preparation is vital when it comes to determining their ability to perform on
the job. The effectiveness of their performance is directly determined by their preparation,
including having a family preparedness plan that hence reduces the occurrence of stress during
the work (Management Association; Information Resources, 2018).
First responders and their families are therefore closely linked. This shows that for the
organization to get the best out of employees, it should gather as much information as possible
regarding their collective responsibility as a family to develop resilience. Also, to settle the first
responder’s mind, it is vital to ensure that the information is tailored for them and their families.
First responders base their response speed on the ability to train and rehearse in advance (First
Responders, 2019). A training program is therefore based on a similar strategy whereby the first
responders will be taken through a training session that will empower them to make better
decisions with regards to taking care of their families during emergencies. One of the most
important strategies is accessing a safe environment. This can only be accessed if there is a plan
in place, and everyone in the family knows the drill.
The relationship between the first responders’ willingness to respond to emergencies and
concern for their families has been well documented. According to a recent study on Israeli
hospital personnel showed that emergency workers are more likely to turn up for work if their
families are safe in the first place (Healthcare workers? willingness to respond following a
disaster: a novel statistical approach toward data analysis, n.d.). Most of the responses showed
that the family wellbeing and the presence of a spouse and children were precise determinants of
the need to leave a good plan just in case of anything when one went to work in an emergency
setting. This shows that most first responders are aware of the hazardous nature of their work,
and they are willing to develop a family preparedness plan for the safety and continuity of their
families (Scott, L. A. (2009).
Indeed, a recent study at the University of Delaware proved this theory that first
responders are willing to respond during emergencies as long as they get some help with family
matters (Clay et al., 2019, p. 34). This shows that it is risky that first responders will give their
family safety the priority at the expense of serving the public. Emergency planners must bear
with the fact that the first responders are equally affected by the emergency, and their absence
from work may be caused by triggered if the region they reside in is affected by a disaster. Thus
organizations are increasingly under pressure to help first responders with family matters so that
they can focus on providing valuable service to the public. The main reason the first responders
may actually abandon duty to the public and focus on their families is that they might be the
victims themselves.
A similar incident occurred during Hurricane Katrina when the first responders became
victims hence rendering the response difficult due to the severe shortage of manpower (Lipton
and Schmitt, 2005). Some of the officers went missing during the hurricane and thus abandoned
their sacred duties. This shows how the first responder may be distracted from doing their job
because of family concern. This incident could not have occurred if there had been a family
preparedness plan. In a similar study in 2007, police officers in Washington admitted that their
family preparedness and overall safety is a crucial determinant of whether they would show up
for duty or not in the event of a chemical or a biological attack (FEMA – Emergency
Management Institute (EMI) | National Preparedness Directorate National Training and
Education Division, 2018). According to the US Department of homeland security, 66% of
police officers admit that they would easily abandon their positions if the safety of their family
was at risk in the event of a disaster (U.S. Department of Homeland Security, 2019). This shows
that a family preparedness emergency plan can be effective in ensuring the officer’s morale in
turning up and giving their all during emergencies is achieved. This also shows that individual
preparedness of a first responder is directly related to their family preparedness by extension.
A family emergency preparedness plan cannot be successful if resilience is not
emphasized in the first responders. Mental preparation is directly associated with the successful
completion of missions during emergencies (Carrizales, 2014). First responders require optimal
mental wellbeing before going into a more stressful environment, such as in a disaster response
area. Large scale disasters require intense effort and focus on the part of first responders.
However, the threat exists when the responder has not created a plan for their family just in case
they are affected by the disaster. The lack of a plan is a recipe for disaster since the extra stress
surely increases the level of fatigue and thus causes the individual to fail to perform during such
operations. This can create workplace burnout, which is associated with low performance and the
lack of optimal coordination in such a sensitive exercise (Boyle, 2018). The presence of a family
preparedness plan allows the first responder to deal with workplace stress alone but not family
and workplace stress. This enhances better workplace performance, which is associated with
better public service.
One of the fundamentals of a family preparedness plan is to develop an emergency plan together
with their families. This allows the family members to participate in the creation of an
emergency supply kit, create a communication plan that is easy to use, and agree on a post
hazard meeting point (Carrizales, 2014). Therefore working as a first responder comes with a
deep connection to the work and family. These dynamics affect the performance of the first
responder in so many ways. Working as a first responder requires a strong family support system
made up of colleagues and the family unit. This allows a healthy relationship that ultimately
reflects on the morale of the first responder.
The importance of training has never been underestimated to boost the effectiveness of
the first responder operations. Training is a significant part of the first responder’s operation
manuals. Through proper training, it is possible to enhance their effectiveness in making prior
preparations for their families in advance. This program will aim at teaching the Saudi Red
Crescent the main components of a family preparedness plan (Finazzo, 2015). The program will
focus on how to gather information, detecting warning signals, developing an evacuation plan,
insuring the home and family, creation of a family communication plan, the need to have an
emergency plan, developing an emergency supply kit and selecting a perfect post hazard meeting
point for the family. The plan will also depict how the first responder families can work in close
collaboration with each other and neighbors during the time disaster strikes.
Planning is a vital part of disaster management. Even within organization setups, first
responders have set methods of carrying out certain operations to ensure the family needs are
met. This is why a family emergency preparedness plan is vital as it allows the first responder to
create a plan so that they can focus on duty whenever disaster strikes (Emergency management,
mass casualty, and mass fatality, 2017). For example, creating a disaster supply kit allows the
first responder family to develop a plan that would enable them to stick crucial supplies such as
medical supplies, medication, nonperishable food, water, and warm clothing in case of an
emergency. The plan should be easy to remember for every household member.
The family emergency plan should take into account familiar buildings, and everyone
should be aware of their respective roles during the emergency to ensure safety. This will require
every family member to have a checklist every time so that they follow up the step by step
instructions, including emergency contacts, addresses, and a meet up point for the family
members (Maurer and Smith, 2013). Involving neighbors allows the sharing of information
within the community to enhance holistic safety. Neighbors can share information to enhance
preparation during a disaster. Prior education and training for first responders are effective in
achieving morale and increasing the capacity of first responders dealing with family issues. The
education opportunity allows first responders who have limited knowledge in the field to develop
the capacity to deal with family issues first before they interfere with their work.
Methods to be used
This project aims at developing a training program for the first responders at the Saudi
Red Crescent. This training program will be implemented in joint collaboration with the Saudi
Red Crescent Authority. The project is estimated to last at least three months before the full
completion (Walter, Rutledge and Edgar, 2003). The program activities will be simple, train first
responders on how to develop a Family emergency preparedness plan through workshops and
seminars organized at the Red Crescent offices across Saudi Arabia. The project will target the
first responders in this organization because it is a significant player among first responders in
Saudi Arabia. The project will focus on first responders within the Saudi Red Crescent. Hence
since the Saudi Red Crescent has a large number of first responders, the program will be carried
out on a rotational basis targeting every Red Crescent center around Saudi Arabia.
The educational program will follow the following strategy during implementation (Boyle,
2018). Since the needs of the program have already been identified, the next step will be to
define the goals of the training program. The goal of this training program will be empowering
first responders and their families to develop the capacity to develop a Family emergency
preparedness plan with their families in case of an emergency. The project deliverables will be
met if the following activities are implemented:

Initial planning of the program

The first respondents’ registration for the training program

Identify, involve and train a qualified pool of trainers

Implement the training program through seminars and workshops

Ensure quality through continuous and rigorous monitoring

Carrying out a practical session to cement the content

Carry out the question-answer session of the training program to determine the

Carrying out a simulation exercise to evaluate the effectiveness of the program
The program curricula will be developed via compounding information to meet the objectives
and overall goals of the program. The project will aim to ensure that the first responders are
trained on how to identify likely hazards in the area. Secondly, they will be taught how to detect
the hazards and what to do in case the hazard has been detected (Carrizales, 2014). The first
responders will be required to hold a family meeting where they will involve their families in
coming up with a Family emergency preparedness plan. The program will teach how to carry out
an emergency meeting, developing a communication plan, the significance of the plan for the
family and the responder, and the steps one can take to get an emergency plan.
Moreover, the program will factor in how to the significance of an emergency supply kit
and selecting a location for carrying out a post hazard meeting place for the family. The first
responder will be required to pass on the valuable information by teaching the family members
how they should respond to emergencies. Furthermore, the plan will factor in how neighbors and
the family could collaborate during the disaster. The training program will be carried out through
collaboration with the Saudi Red Crescent Authority (Saudi Red Crescent Authority – IFRC,
2017). The educational program will target over one thousand participants spread across the five
administrative provinces. In order to achieve efficiency, the program will run progressively,
covering the five areas of interest. The major program activities will be the registration of the
participants, training of the trainers, carrying out the training program, monitoring the program
effectiveness, and carrying out an evaluation of the educational program.
The education program will delve into matters such as identifying various hazards and
taking the necessary protective actions (Carrizales, 2014). The program will also highlight the
individual roles and responsibilities for each family member, communication procedure,
emergency procedure, and the evacuation strategy. The program will also factor in the means
that should be used to locate each other after the disaster and to ensure accountability.
Furthermore, the program will ensure that the family members have access to a checklist they
can use to refer to the next step of action in case of an emergency. Measuring the effectiveness of
the training program will be done through determining the number of first responders who adopt
the family preparedness plan. The program will be considered a success if the first responders
focus on their work more even during disasters. Results will also be positive if the preparedness
plans actually work during real life disasters that first responders will attend. This session will
gauge if the first responders have understood the best practices taught or not. This way, the
trainers will be able to gauge and develop a viable strategy to ensure the proper delivery of the
education content.
The training program is meant to equip the first responders and their families with
information on how to develop a viable Family emergency preparedness plan for use during
emergencies. The program will aim at filling a gap in the Saudi Red Crescent, where first
responders are always worried about their families during emergencies. It thus becomes difficult
for them to prioritize between their family safety and their jobs. Developing a prior plan will
almost guarantee the safety of their children. This will give them the motivation, mental
preparation, and zeal to undertake their duties effectively and optimally. This educational
program will be considered successful if the first responders develop the capacity to establish a
proper and effective emergency plan for their families. Indeed, the educational program will
empower their families since they will also benefit from an insurance cover against losses due to
emergencies. This program will build the capacity needed by the first responders to deal with
uncertainties and losses due to disasters.
Bullock, J. A., Haddow, G. D., & Coppola, D. P. (2013). Introduction to Emergency
Management. Oxford, England: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Carrizales, A. (2014). Plan and Prepare: Formulating an Emergency Response Plan for First
Responders and Good Samaritans during a Bioterrorist Act Affecting Thousands. Journal
of Biosecurity, Biosafety, and Biodefense Law, 5(1). doi:10.1515/jbbbl-2014-0012
Clay, L. A., Goetschius, J. B., Papas, M. A., Trainor, J., Martins, N., & Kendra, J. M. (2019).
Does Preparedness Matter? The Influence of Household Preparedness on Disaster
Outcomes During Superstorm Sandy. Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness,
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Emergency management, mass casualty, and mass fatality *. (2017). HAZMAT Guide for First
Responders, 177-190. doi:10.1201/9781315230795-14
FEMA – Emergency Management Institute (EMI) | National Preparedness Directorate National
Training and Education Division. (2018, June 20). Retrieved from
Finazzo, S. (2015). The Neighborhood Emergency Response Handbook: Your Life-Saving Plan
for Personal and Community Preparedness. Ulysses Press.
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Healthcare workers? willingness to respond following a disaster: a novel statistical approach
toward data analysis. (n.d.). Retrieved from
Haddow, G., Bullock, J., & Coppola, D. P. (2010). Introduction to Emergency Management.
Oxford, England: Butterworth-Heinemann.a
Lipton, E., & Schmitt, E. (2005, August 31). HURRICANE KATRINA: EMERGENCY
RESPONDERS; Navy Ships and Maritime Rescue Teams Are Sent to Region. Retrieved
from https://www.nytimes.com/2005/08/31/us/hurricane-katrina-emergency-respondersnavy-ships-and-maritime-rescue.html
Management Association; Information Resources. (2018). Emergency and Disaster
Management: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications: Concepts,
Methodologies, Tools, and Applications. IGI Global.
Maurer, F. A., & Smith, C. M. (2013). Community/Public Health Nursing Practice: Health for
Families and Populations. Elsevier Health Sciences.
Rosborough, S. (2010). A Tale of Two Responses: Haiti Earthquake Highlights the Need for
Training in International Disaster Response. Disaster Medicine and Public Health
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and Emergency Preparedness Training. Disaster Medicine and Public Health
Preparedness, 3(3), 139-140. doi:10.1097/dmp.0b013e3181b7e666
Saudi Red Crescent Authority – IFRC. (2017, April 7). Retrieved from
U.S. Department of Homeland Security. (2019). Retrieved from
Walter, A. A., Rutledge, M. L., & Edgar, C. N. (2003). First Responder Handbook: Fire Service
Edition. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.
Assessment Industrial Hazards in Jubail City
Assessment Industrial Hazards in Jubail City
Jubail Industrial City serves as one of the biggest freelancing manufacturing development
projects in the middle east. In addition, it is the most significant industrial city in Saudi Arabia as
compared to other Saudi cities. As a result, Jubail supports the growth of energy-intensive
companies and got situated near economically vital regions like Dammam, Ras al-Khair, and
lastly, Ras Tanura. As an organized industrial city, Jubail incorporates different types of
industries such as a steel mill, refineries and one of the world’s biggest desalination plants that as
well generates electricity (The Saudi Network, n.d). Additionally, the city contains petroleum
products like fertilizers, plastics, which get produced and then exported. This substantial
industrial complexity within Jubail serves as the federal government’s dream of Saudi Arabian’s
future growth. Such varying industries within Jubail City mainly get involved with various items
of chemical equipment as well as an oil refinery.
Due to the natural characteristics of these industries situated in Jubail City, disasters are
likely to occur because of possible industrial accidents; that is, these city industrial processes
inflict hazards associated with different health issues. Likewise, there are frequent occurrences of
multiple potential hazards resulting from the advanced industrial processes such as fire
explosions, air pollution, building collapses, and others, which arise due to industrialization in
Jubail City. It is thus significant to comprehend the possible effects of the City’s growth on the
environment and residents of Jubail City (Almalki, & Al-Namazi, 2019). The collaboration
between the hospital staff and industries’ staff might then contribute to the appropriate
management of reducing the possible industrial disasters on the environment and people. This
project will aid in searching and investigating the needed resources for possible hazards for
Jubail Industries and Jubail City hospitals to increase the surge capacity as well as to find the
common stocks among hospitals to cover deficiency and then respond to the potential industrial
Statement of the Problem
In any industrial process, there are several issues associated with disaster or potential
hazard occurrence. Similarly, as an industrial city, Jubail undergoes the same problem. For
instance, various items of chemical equipment, together with the oil refineries and other
processes mainly cause different accidents like gas suffocations, burns, deaths, and other
instances, which affect the industrial workforce and even the city residents at large. Such risk
factors have been increasing steadily with the growth and development of Jubail City. For
instance, individual employees might suffocate from the chemical fumes or air pollution
resulting from the ongoing processes.
Likewise, the entire Jubail City faces air pollution due to industrial processes within the
region. Other casualties, especially the workforce or even the neighboring residents, might burn
from the fire explosions surfacing from the chemical processes. There are also death incidents,
which occur due to the building collapses that might result due to inappropriate process
exploration and others.
Project Purpose and Description
As previously mentioned, the natural characteristics of the industries, including those
within Jubail City, are associated with disasters like anticipated industrial accidents. Therefore,
with advancements in Jubail industrialization, possible hazards will increase to occur, and further
affect the human population, including company employees and even the community at large. It
is thus significant to comprehend the possible effects of the City’s growth on the environment
and residents of Jubail City (Almalki, & Al-Namazi, 2019). The collaboration between the
hospital professionals and industries’ staff might then contribute to an appropriate management
response within 96 hours after emergency occurrence to reduce the possible industrial disasters
like gas suffocations caused by inhalation, burns, and others on the environment and people. This
project will thus accomplish its purpose by achieving the following objectives:Specific Objectives

To search and assess the needed resources for possible hazards for Jubail

To search and assess the necessary resources for potential dangers for Jubail City

To determine ways of increasing surge capability of the Jubail City hospitals

To identify ways of finding the joint stocks among hospitals for covering
healthcare shortages

To create coordination among hospitals and respond to emergencies from Jubail
City Industries, that is, burns, gas suffocation, and others.
Literature Review
Several published papers have explored the disaster management interventions associated
with limiting or preventing industry disasters like gas suffocation, burns, and the rest. Some of
these papers include Mohammad, Ali, & Ahmad (2018), Aljanabi (2016), Alzaben (2015) and
others. These interventions can then get implemented within 96 hours after the emergency
occurrence and, if executed successfully, can aid in managing such industrial disaster and save
lives. Some of these strategies investigated by those research studies incorporate resources
needed for possible hazards for the industries in Saudi Arabia, and Saudi Arabia local hospitals.
Other management strategies include increasing surge capability of the local hospitals and
finding the joint medicinal stocks among hospitals for covering healthcare shortages. Literature
has also investigated ways of creating coordination among hospitals and response to emergencies
from Industries like burns, gas suffocation, and other type of injuries.
Mohammad, Ali, & Ahmad (2018) suggest three factors, including risk investigation,
awareness as well as training to aid in evaluating the preparedness of managing disaster like
burns and suffocation from industrial processes concerns. According to this article, it is
significant to raise standards of risk analysis, particularly to identify losses size and probability
degree. It is as well imperative to increase training programs of preparedness for dealing with
disasters. It is essential to raise awareness programs for emergency management staff.
Additionally, Aljanabi (2016) asserts that it is significant for the industrial workforce to
have increased awareness of hazards to the public health as well as the environment due to their
closeness to natural gas and oil production facilities within Jubal Industrial City. The strategy
will assist the workforce in participating in Jubail’s disaster management plan. Aljanabi (2016)
further claims that risk perceptions of employees depend on water, soil, environmental air, and
social health. The article suggests that every employee must measure his or her working
environment effects on the industrial outcome. Therefore, regarding the opinion on the industry
impact, Aljanabi (2016) states that even employees will prioritize training as well as
environmental safety activities and practices as the incidents associated with resources needed
for the hazards like burns and gas suffocation within Jubail City industries.
Moreover, Aljanabi (2016) confirms that such opinions might show that experienced and
skilled employees as well as those with company full comprehension tend to limitedly affect the
environment and community during their production process. As a result, Aljanabi (2016)
concludes that such workforce awareness on the community and industry impact relates to the
speed of disaster response. Such knowledge as well enables employees to have the demographic
information associated with working in Gas and Oil Company.
Likewise, The Saudi Network (n.d) asserts that even though the huge industrial complex
of Jubail City promises future growth of Saudi Arabia, it is important to manage the growth and
development of industries. The article thus recommends educating employees on the skill needed
to fully and successfully fill the industry needs without causing disasters like fire explosions and
gas leaks associated with burns and gas suffocation, respectively. First, as a resource for disaster
management, The Saudi Network (n.d) proposes the Institute of Royal Commission for the
Development of Human Research to train upcoming industrial employees on the required
industrial skills needed to control the expected accidents like burns.
Furthermore, The Saudi Network (n.d) confirms that Royal Commission Institute builds
hospitals like the Royal Commission hospital and even the primary care facilities and clinics that
offer epidemic control and first aid. These hospitals are completely computerized and have other
medical clinics where the clinical needs of society become thoroughly covered. Such strategies
tend to increase the surge capacity of these hospitals and also find the joint medicinal stock when
the local clinics are out of medicine.
Similarly, as a way of preparing hospitals during an emergency attack in Saudi Arabia
cities, Alzaben (2015) asserts that these clinics and hospitals tend to maintain their functions
through long term strategies of improving the reliability as well as the quality of their services. In
the process, they better utilize their resources.
Alzaben (2015) further indicates that such plans involve outsourcing as well as
subsequent control of suppliers and contractors. The strategy effectively, affordably, and
successfully maintains their day-to-day activities irrespective of destructions caused by the
industrial fire explosions, building collapses, and others within the hospital premises. As a result,
the plan strengthens the surge ability of responding to the massive casualty events like burns as
well as gas suffocation. Similarly, such initiatives will ensure joint-stock among hospitals
because in case the local hospital faces destruction, the outsourced or contracted stock will
provide relevant resources required in effectively saving people’s lives.
Additionally, as a way of creating coordination among hospitals and responding to
emergencies from Jubail City Industries including but not limited to burns, gas suffocation,
Alkhudairi (2016) suggests the use of a mobile application. According to this article, the mobile
application introduction in managing disasters like gas suffocation and burns from industrial gas
leaks and other incidents makes it easier to manage the victim’s condition when the disaster
management team communicates with the healthcare professionals remotely, who immediately
provide care to the victimized groups.
Such events enable the hospitals to prepare faster to attend to the injured parties, and even
save on time because the phone calls quickly alert the care providers for a given disaster
occurrence and associated injuries. Alkhudairi (2016) claims that the use of the mobile
application as well helps in coordination to ensure that clients obtain critical information such as
what to do or expect before the hospital team arrive at the scene to prevent further injuries
associated with burns and gas suffocations.
According to Alyami (2018), healthcare within Saudi Arabia has been coming last after
the developed nations because of insufficient healthcare practitioners as well as monitoring and
tracking technology. Such shortages cause problems related to casualty misidentification,
prolonged waiting times, together with the incapability of locating clinical equipment effectively
and efficiently. In his suggestion through Saudi Arabian Vision 2030 plan, which promotes the
regional health-associated educational outlets, Alyami (2018), however, solves such deficiencies.
To improve hospital preparation in Saudi Arabia, some hospitals tend to devise information
technology systems. Such systems tend to provide a proper selection for the real-time monitoring
and tracking technology within Saudi Arabian healthcare, such as an integrated ZigBee/RFID
Furthermore, Alyami (2018) states that such IT systems such as ZigBee/RFID system
improve healthcare staff efficiency as well as productivity to better care for the patients. Such
instances further minimize long-term healthcare costs. According to Alyami (2018), these
integrated IT systems offer interactive platforms for hospital staff to improve productivity and
efficiency. As a way of increasing surge ability, through these integrated platforms, healthcare
staffs are capable of lowering casualty waiting time when communicating their health concerns
resulting from industrial disasters.
According to Alharthi (2017), structural solutions like hospitals with educational focus as
well as the government policies for supporting healthy behaviors and industrial practices are
essential in the effective management of industrial disasters. Alharthi (2017) thus proposes that it
is vital to develop and encourage healthy and positive industrial practices such as smartphone
use, educational classes. They assist both healthcare professionals and industrial workers in
managing disaster occurrence and endorsing appropriate industrial activities to prevent
emergency occurrence, respectively.
Blaisi (2019), on the other hand, reports that the management of disaster, for instance,
those surfacing from the growth of construction and demolition, C&D waste are only possible
when supporting environmentally sound waste control practices. However, Blaisi (2019) states
that with an insufficient hospital or industrial collaboration, immature policies for efficient C&D
recycling and management, as well as inadequate coordination between C&D generators and
regulators, there is no proper disaster management. Furthermore, Blaisi (2019) records that lack
of awareness, motives, and incentives for managing C&D and enforceable laws for the
managers, the hospitals, together with the industries will be incapable of effectively managing
the disasters associated with accretion of construction and demolition, C&D waste.
Last but not least, Mansour, Khadar &Falqi (2019) record that environmental and human
protection requires the implementation and adoption of legal and economic procedures that can
limit the adverse effects like disaster occurrence associated with industrialization. This article
further states that environmental laws can influence the industrial construction within Saudi
Arabia and then single out difficulties that the health practitioners might go through. With such
laws, the development and demolition, C&D waste reduce, thus limiting the occurrence of
industrial disasters originating from industrial accidents like burns and gas suffocation.
Eventually, Mansour, Khadar &Falqi (2019) highlight that the Royal Commission for Industries
in Jubail and Yanbu tends to issue the environmental laws applicable to hospitals and industries
situated in the Royal Commission regions and contractors working within.
General Overview
The primary hypotheses of this study are that resources associated with risk analysis,
training as well as awareness creation such as the Royal Commission, are essential for potential
hazards for Jubail City industries and Jubail City Hospitals, mainly the Royal Commission
Hospital. Secondly, the local inventories implemented by these resources, for instance,
protection laws, training, and awareness made by the Royal Commission, are efficient in
handling disaster management within the first 96 hours immediately after the disasters like burns
or even gas suffocation occurs. Thirdly, these local inventories are essential in strengthening the
surge capability to respond to these burns and gas suffocation targeting the industrial employees
as well as the community at large. Last but not least, these local inventories are as well useful in
finding the common stocks among hospitals for covering any shortage associated with disaster
Data Collection
A systematic review of Jubail City industrial disaster management will get conducted
where the evaluation and assessment of some research works addressing how industrial cities
and hospitals globally tend to prepare for the industrial incidents like burns or even gas
suffocations and then perform disaster relief associated with responding to the mass casualties
will get explored. The review will center on using a planned approach of locating, assembling
and eventually assessing Royal Commission Hospital Emergency Operation Plan associated with
industrial emergency incidents, and then develop an annex as shown in the appendix below. The
annex will ensure sufficient supplies to the identified industrial hazards.
Appendix A:
After a broad review of studies and literature associated with international industrial disaster
management, including Saudi Arabian cities, an annex will be the best review method. The
annex will serve as a training guide based on the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point
system, HACCP. It will thus incorporate the following modules:•
Codex Guidelines for the implementation of the HACCP system.

Listing possible hazards resulting from the industrial processes defaults.

Sources of hazard analysis information

Measures of controlling the identified hazards
Examples of hazards from different industrial processes shall get reviewed from the Royal
Commission Hospital Emergency Operation Plan, together with the identified control measures
suitable for the respective hazards. The data shall then get recorded as exemplified in the table
Control Measures
Agricultural chemicals
Chemical Hazards
Prohibited Substances
Toxic Compounds and
Elements like:Lead
Zinc etc
Contaminants like:Water treatment chemicals
Pest control chemicals
Packaging materials like:Plasticizers
Coding or printing inks
Injuries like burn or gas
Physical Hazards
Alharthi, B. (2017). Informing health-related behaviour change in Saudi Arabia: a social
marketing approach (Doctoral dissertation, Newcastle University).
Aljanabi, W. (2016). Risk perception and awareness of oil and natural gas safety among local
populations in the eastern province of Jubail, Saudi Arabia. West Virginia University.
Alkhudairi, B. (2016). Technology acceptance issues for a mobile application to support
diabetes patients in Saudi Arabia (Doctoral dissertation, University of Brighton).
Almalki, K. A., & Al-Namazi, A. A. (2019). Impact of the industrial sector on surface
temperatures in Jubail City, Saudi Arabia using remote sensing techniques. Spatial
Information Research, 27(3), 329-337.
Alyami, A. A. (2018). Smart e-Health System for Real-time Tracking and Monitoring of
Patients, Staff and Assets for Healthcare Decision Support in Saudi Arabia (Doctoral
dissertation, Staffordshire University).
Alzaben, H. (2015). Development of a maintenance management framework to facilitate the
delivery of healthcare provisions in the Kingdom of Saudia Arabia (Doctoral dissertation,
Nottingham Trent University).
Blaisi, N. I. (2019). Construction and demolition waste management in Saudi Arabia: Current
practice and roadmap for sustainable management. Journal of Cleaner Production, 221,
Khan, M. N. B. (2013). Telephone consultations in primary care, how to improve their safety,
effectiveness and quality. BMJ Open Quality, 2(1), u202013-w1227.
Mansour, M. A. A., Khadar, S. D. A., &Falqi, I. I. A. (2019). ANALYZING THE
RESEARCH, 17(2), 3781-3802.
Mohammad, A. G. A., Ali, A. M., & Ahmad, A. A. (2018). Evaluation of relatively constant
factors in Preparedness of Disaster Management in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia. Advances
in Natural and Applied Sciences, 12(5), 14-21.
The Saudi Network. (n.d).Jubail Industrial City Profile, Member of Saudi Arabia Trade and
Business Directory. Retrieved from: http://www.the-saudi.net/saudiarabia/jubail/Jubail%20Industrial%20City%20-%20Saudi%20Arabia.htm
Hospital EOP
King Fahad Hospital Madinah is one of the most crucial hospitals in Saudi Arabia. This project
reviews the emergency operations plan of the hospital, does a hazard vulnerability analysis, and a
tabletop exercise. Although the hospital already has an EOP, it is difficult to determine the quality
of planning and process, given the ever-changing nature of disasters and emergencies. Thus, an
evaluation is mandatory to assess these factors and make recommendations to ensure emergency
preparedness at King Fahad Hospital is excellent. The study will consist of a literature review on
all three dimensions of emergency preparedness. The methods the study employs include a threat
and hazard assessment, and a tabletop exercise to review best planning practices, principles as well
as weaknesses of King Fahad Hospital’s EOP.
Reviewing the EOP for King Fahad Hospital
Emergency preparedness is a crucial component and should be a priority in the facility
management plan of every healthcare organization. This explains why The Joint Commission has
set an emergency operations plan and its annual review as mandatory requirements for hospitals it
accredits. Communication, resources and assets, safety and security, staff responsibilities, utility
management, patient and clinical support activities, and regular testing and evaluation are the
seven primary components of emergency operations plan in a hospital setting.
King Fahad Hospital in Madinah, being one of the largest hospitals in Saudi Arabia, has a
functioning emergency operations plan. However, the effectiveness of the hospital’s EOP is subject
to review, which will be the main focus of this study. Crises, emergencies, and disasters, can be
financially imposing, strenuous, and chaotic to organizations, including hospitals. Thus, having an
EOP alone without conducting regular reviews is inadequate in curbing disasters in case of an
occurrence. Consequently, the hospital’s EOP could be a compliance mechanism to the guidelines
of The Joint Commission hence calling for the need for a review.
King Fahad Hospital’s current EOP is quite comprehensive. It consists of both an internal
and an external disaster plan with clear definitions of what qualifies as a disaster in each of the
categories, the purpose of having the plan, hazard vulnerability analysis, preparedness,
communication, procedures, disaster response, staffing, and equipment. Therefore, the hospital’s
emergency response plan addresses most of the key areas of EOP that ensure efficient preparations,
response, and mitigation of emergencies or disasters.
Nevertheless, it is still difficult to conclude that the EOP of King Fahad Hospital rests on
the three building blocks of preparedness, which are identification, review, and verification.
Establishing the process of preparedness remains a challenge unless all the three aspects are in
motion. Thus, determining whether King Fahad Hospital’s EOP complies with all these three
elements by reviewing it, doing a hazard vulnerability analysis, and a tabletop exercise is the
primary purpose of this project.
Need for the Study
An emergency operations plan is a requirement for any hospital since it outlines the
facility’s course of action in responding to and recovering from potential hazards. The all-hazards
approach is inclusive of the seven critical elements as prescribed by The Joint Commission’s
Emergency Management Standards. As already mentioned, the critical components of an efficient
EOP include communication, resources and assets, safety and security, staff responsibilities,
utilities, clinical support activities, and regular testing and evaluation practices.
In other words, an EOP acts as a manual that provides the structure and processes of
disaster preparedness and response that helps an organization respond to and recover from various
types of hazards (Fulmer, 2015). It assures facilities the ability to respond to a range of emergencies
with varying causes, duration, and scale. At the same time, the EOP of an organization, especially
a healthcare facility such as King Fahad Hospital, should address response, procedures, and
capabilities in the absence of community support. In simple terms, an EOP is the critical response
and recovery component of an organization’s emergency management program (EMP).
King Fahad Hospital’s EOP has addressed all of the key elements of EOP as required by
The Joint Commission’s Emergency Management Standards. This means that the hospital already
recognizes that certain incidents that may impact or disrupt routine operations and requires
efficient emergency may occur (Fulmer, 2015). The components of the hospital’s EOP are
sufficient evidence of its awareness of such possibilities and are armed to respond and recover
from various kinds of emergencies. The EOP consists of an outline of response strategies,
including coordination between departments in readiness for a listed number of emergencies.
King Fahad Hospital’s EOP, therefore, requires an evaluation and assessment to identify
areas that need improvement or a complete overhaul. Thus, it is an excellent subject for this review,
as the findings will be useful in designing more strategies to strengthen its emergency response
mechanisms (Fulmer, 2015). An evaluation of the EOP through a review, hence, is a strategy of
determining the effectiveness of the EOP, which in this case is that of King Fahad Hospital. Lastly,
the review of King Fahad Hospital, an analysis of hazard vulnerability, and evaluation through
tabletop exercises will reveal its best practices and principles. After that, other healthcare facilities
can also adopt it in preparing and responding to emergencies and disasters.
Simply, conducting a review on King Fahad Hospital’s EOP, doing a hazard vulnerability
analysis, and a tabletop exercise, which are the main objectives of this study, will have several
benefits. For instance, it will enhance the implementation and enforcement of the plan, provide a
management tool to support the revision of procedures, and reveal both weaknesses and strengths
of the current practices (Fulmer, 2015). After that, the findings will play a critical role in the
training and simulation of events within the hospital by ensuring that the responsible person
understands what is required of them in mitigating various emergency situations.
Consequently, given the financial strain that emergencies impose on hospitals or any other
organization, the findings of this study will assist in effective resource allocation for potential
hazards that King Fahad hospital may encounter. This is because the outcomes will impact every
dimension of the EOP and encourage improved coordination between the staff and the system,
operations improvement, technology acquisition, and identification of opportunities for
preparedness enhancements.
Literature Review
Emergency preparedness requires a continual sequence of analysis. Thus, the existence of
an EOP within an organization is not an adequate measure of disaster preparedness (Kapucu &
Hu, 2016). Organizations need to recognize variables such as the changing nature of threats as well
as operational consolidation and growth for them to respond effectively to emergencies. In simple
terms, organizations should routinely identify and analyze relevant risks and threats and
incorporate them into their preparedness plan for it to be considered up-to-date, compliant, and
practical. Thus, this section is going to be a review of literature on the importance of reviewing
EOPs, conducting a hazard vulnerability analysis, and a tabletop exercise.
Review of EOP
Every practical and effective emergency operations plan should address seven elements
(Kapucu & Hu, 2016). Regarding the communication factor, an organization’s EOP ought to
outline key internal and external emergency response details of communication. Issues such as
who will be responsible for the development and sharing of information with the relevant internal
authorities, and who will be involved in the communication command center need to be addressed.
Externally, the plan should outline effective communication strategies with external sources such
as other emergency response agencies and stakeholders.
The second key area that an effective EOP should address is resources and assets.
Enumeration of the available emergency response resources and assets is a significant component
of an EOP. It helps the facility know their limits and have an alternative for when the resources
run short. Also, The Joint Commission recommends that any hospital facility includes in its EOP
emergency resources such as supplies for effective mitigation of potential hazards. Therefore,
reviewing an EOP should involve checking whether the plan has outlined the available emergency
response resources and how relevant these resources are to the changing nature of hazards.
Safety and security is also an important element of an emergency operations plan. An
efficient EOP of a hospital, for instance, should outline safety and security procedures for both
patients and other involved personnel in the event of an emergency (Shah et al., 2016). The hospital
should acknowledge within its EOP security measures such as the management of hazardous
materials and waste, coordination with other relevant security agencies, and evacuation processes
if necessary. This helps the hospital or organization avoid the exacerbation of the situation that
could lead to more casualties.
According to Lock et al. (2016), staff responsibilities are another element that an EOP
should have and whose review should occur more frequently. This is due to the ever-changing
nature of hazards, which calls for the assignment of roles that fit the expertise of personnel. The
specificity of roles in the occurrence of an emergency and inclusion in the EOP improves an
organization’s emergency response. Having an effective chain of command ensures effective
communication and, in turn, response to emergencies (Kapucu & Hu, 2016). The individual
responsibilities in this area should be subject to constant review to ensure that emergency
personnel are conversant with their responsibilities, the use of available assets and resources as
well as communication techniques.
Another key area is utility management. In the event of an emergency, a facility such as a
hospital should have in its EOP details of how the flow of its utilities will continue. Utilities such
as medical gas and fuel, water, and electricity are critical in a hospital setting. Hence, the facility
ought to ensure that the plan has a way of providing them undisrupted, especially in the case of an
emergency. A review of an EOP, therefore, is to make sure that strategies of continuity of
operations are in place (Lock et al., 2016). For example, the labeling of systems and valves is a
crucial component of utility management with regard to emergency planning. An EOP review
should aim at ensuring that the labels indicated in the response plan align with the exact tags.
The patient and clinical support activities are only an essential element of EOP in a
healthcare facility setting. Regardless of the nature of an emergency, the response mechanism
should ensure continual care for patients. According to Lock et al. (2016), the plan should include
appropriate reactions to crises in a way that clinical services continue undisturbed. Therefore, the
EOP should have a projection of a hazard’s level of impact on the facility as well as its patient care
and treatment services. Basically, the patient and clinical support activities element are designed
to help a hospital or medical care facility design patient care alternatives in case of a hazard or
Regular testing and evaluation is the last critical factor that an EOP should have and review
regularly. Regular testing and evaluation of communication strategies, resources and assets, safety
and security measures, staff responsibilities, utility management, and patient and clinical support
activities should be mandatory (Lock et al., 2016). This is because it is the only avenue of knowing
whether the facility’s EOP is practical and useful. Regular testing and evaluation of an EOP,
especially of a hospital, should be as frequent as twice a year given that hospitals are primary
emergency response organizations.
Emergency preparedness does not end with a complete EOP that checks all of the seven
necessary elements. Organizations, in this case, hospitals, should move ahead and develop sitespecific response plans that identify risks, threats, and preparedness needs for each particular
hazardous event (Shah et al., 2016). In other words, the hospital should review its EOP at least
twice a year for effective and accurate responses to newly identified risk variables.
The review processes should consider operational requirements, response objectives, best
practices and principles, mitigation opportunities, and response procedures that are necessary for
efficient handling of emergencies (Shah et al., 2016). Therefore, EOP reviews include but are not
limited to data and computer needs, notification lists, communication needs, supply chain,
essential personnel, and equipment needs as prescribed by The Joint Commission.
Effective EOP reviews also involve debriefings of all the collaborative response entities.
During the meetings, the responsible personnel should confirm specific response and plan details
with the rest of the response team, particularly outside responders, for compliance and consistency
of the emergency operations plan with the hospital’s protocol and best practices. Some of the
parties to include in an EOP review are local responders who may be emergency services, police,
and the fire department. Government agencies like emergency management offices are also crucial
for review segments (Shah et al., 2016).
Community organizations such as weather services and the Red Cross also play a vital role
in disaster response thus should be a part of a hospital’s EOP reviews. Utility companies such as
gas, public works, and telephone service companies should be present to represent the review of
the utility management section of an EOP (Shah et al., 2016). Other parties that could be relevant
to EOP reviews are contracted emergency responders and neighboring businesses such as hospitals
to which patients could be transferred depending on the magnitude of the hazard.
After the debriefing segment of an emergency operations plan, what should follow is its
effectiveness and accuracy verification. The most appropriate strategy for the verification process
and testing of an EOP’s readiness is training and exercise (Lock et al., 2018). This technique is the
most valuable tool for confirming preparedness efforts and effective response planning.
Some of the activities in the verification process include but are not limited to the
development of an emergency assessment system and prioritizing scenarios for incidents. Also,
procedures and thresholds for activating the crisis management or incident management team
should undergo verification (Lock et al., 2018). The verification of notification information is also
mandatory to determine the best communication techniques as well as the potential challenges that
the response communication team may encounter. Still, on communication, the verification of the
effectiveness and accuracy of the notification procedures also facilitates interactions among the
incident management team and the rest of the responders (Lock et al., 2018).
Training and exercise also enable verification and testing of the accuracy of roles and
responsibilities assigned to the responsible staff. As Liu et al. (2018) state, verifying checklists and
guidelines of an EOP is necessary to assist organized and efficient response during emergency
situations. The last factor to check in determining the accuracy and effectiveness of an EOP is onsite response times, response equipment, and hazardous materials.
The process of reviewing a facility’s emergency operations plan should be in-depth and
objective. This is because it is the only way to measure the effectiveness and accuracy of its details
with regard to emergency response (Liu et al., 2018). However, tools and technology such as webbased emergency response planning systems are readily available to assist with most of the
processes (Liu et al., 2018). Thus, it is easy to determine site-specific regulatory criteria and
enterprise-wide standardization of an EOP.
Hazard Vulnerability Analysis (HVA)
A hazard vulnerability analysis (HVA) refers to a systematic approach of identifying risks
or hazards that are likely to occur and have an impact on the operations of the facility. Conducting
an HVA assessment helps hospitals prioritize their planning efforts by focusing on the most
prevalent hazards (Baybutt, 2017). As is the norm in the digital world, multiple tools and
technological resources are available to assist with this process. Just like an emergency operations
plan, a hazard vulnerability analysis is also subject to regular review for accuracy and effectiveness
of hazard projection.
Baybutt (2017) states that facilities mostly rely on experts from outside agencies or
institutions to conduct HVA for them. This is because the institutions gather and store large
amounts of data on hazards and their magnitude. As a result, the institutions have an additional
context for the assessment of potential hazards due to the possession of both qualitative and
quantitative probability and impact data based on actual events and risk assessment of a given
geographical area. Such institutions include state agencies and jurisdictional emergency
management agencies, among others. The institutions provide valuable data that is vital to the
designation of input and resources for emergency preparedness and response.
Designing an effective and accurate emergency response plan is almost impossible without
first conducting a hazard vulnerability assessment. This is particularly true in the case of hospitals
because the occurrence of a hazard, whether natural or caused by human activities, can have an
enormous direct or indirect impact on their operations (Du et al., 2015). An HVA, therefore,
provides hospitals with a basis for determining the precise demands and standards of emergency
resources and services that could effectively mitigate a hazard. In simple terms, an HVA is the
foundation of the development of a coordinated disaster response plan irrespective of the context.
According to the provisions of The Joint Commission, hospitals are required to develop
event-specific response and mitigation plans for identified top three to five hazards within their
geographical location. However, this identification can only be successful when the hospital
conducts a hazard vulnerability analysis. After the development of a response plan based on an
HVA, the hospitals should emphasize training and exercises of the relevant personnel around the
identified hazards.
Hospitals should not conduct a hazard vulnerability assessment independently. Counties,
cities, and communities also do their HVAs, which hospitals ought to be a part of because of the
potential impact of the identified hazards by the institutions on their operations. This is due to the
fact that victims or casualties of hazards always end up in hospitals despite the existence of other
emergency response agencies (Borron, 2015). Hence, there needs to be a coordinated and
collaborative analysis of hazard vulnerability between the hospital and outside institutions or
agencies for the development of efficient EOP.
Kaiser Permanente is widely documented as the most effective tool for conducting HVA.
KP comes with an instructions sheet that assists the planning process of an emergency response
plan. This tool is readily available for download for organizations or individuals for purposes of
hazard assessment (Waters, 2017). Thus, organizations can prioritize risks based on actual incident
information identified through the Kaiser Permanente hazard analysis tool.
Other tools for HVA also exist, such as the threat and hazard identification and risks
assessment (THIRA) and stakeholder preparedness review (SPR) guide. The combination of
THIRA and SPR is a model that is more community-based but incorporates healthcare facilities as
well. It is an advanced version of a comprehensive preparedness guide (CPG) with a three-step
process of identifying and analyzing threats and hazards (Pine, 2017). The steps include identifying
community-specific hazards and threats through an explained standard process. Next is setting
capability targets for identified key core capabilities. The third step is estimating the required
resources that can meet the capability targets. These steps are often incorporated with SPR’s threestep process due to their interconnectedness. Therefore, through THIRA and SPR, hospitals need
to ensure their input uses accurate numerics (Borron, 2015).
Tabletop Exercise (TTX)
A tabletop exercise refers to a meeting of critical emergency response personnel to discuss
or handle simulated emergency situations in a non-threatening environment. Emergency personnel
practice their roles and responsibilities and review their actions in a hypothetical emergency
scenario. Thus, a tabletop exercise is an excellent way of clarifying roles and responsibilities in
disaster preparedness as well as identifying new mechanisms of mitigating emergency needs
(Skryabina et al., 2017). Consequently, a TTX is part of an EOP review as it defines the strengths
and weaknesses of the emergency plan. Hence, hospitals should do tabletop exercises on a regular
Since a TTX does not always take place in a threatening or harsh environment, responsible
personnel with emergency management roles always rehearse their duties, troubleshoot problem
areas, and ask questions as a way of polishing the emergency response plan (Skryabina et al.,
2017). A TTX could occur in a variety of ways, including walkthroughs and orientation seminars
or workshops, functional exercises, full-scale exercises, or tabletop exercises.
During a walkthrough exercise, emergency response personnel are taken through plans of
continuity of operations and the different ways of responding in the event of a hazard. A
walkthrough, therefore, familiarizes the emergency response team members with their roles and
responsibilities in preparation for potential hazards (Pate et al., 2016). Also, walkthrough exercises
provide ample opportunities to make every involved emergency response personnel understand
the communication process. This type of TTX is considered an effective hazard response exercise
because the calm environment improves the personnel’s ability to grasp their preparedness roles.
Full-scale exercises are common among healthcare organizations, municipal government
workers, and the military. Just like the name suggests, this is a vigorous exercise where situations
are simulated to resemble real emergency scenarios (Dausey et al., 2017). During the training, law
enforcement agencies, local businesses, and all the relevant stakeholders are often notified and
given roles to play. Thus, it is an effective exercise that familiarizes emergency preparedness
personnel with every possible situation in a disaster setting.
A tabletop exercise is also another individual exercise of the wider TTX. In this type of
exercise, team members get together and hold discussions on how to react in various situations
and their roles during an emergency as well. A tabletop exercise is not very different from a
walkthrough exercise only that the latter mostly requires a facilitator and takes longer because of
engaging in action plans (Chandra et al., 2015). Tabletop exercises, on the other hand, can be
completed in a few hours, depending on the objectives.
The primary objective of a TTX is to let the participants, who are mostly emergency
response personnel, understand what is expected of them in hazardous scenarios. However, the
exercises always include the participants, a facilitator, an evaluator, and an observer. The
participants are the main subjects of the exercise. Hence, they are expected to be proactive during
the entire process (Dausey et al., 2017).
Facilitators act as moderators by controlling the flow and pace of the exercise. They ensure
the smooth running of the exercise and are tasked with drawing out solutions from the process.
Evaluators are more like observers, but they have the role of reporting the strengths and
weaknesses of the emergency response plan and areas that need improvement (Dausey et al.,
2017). Lastly, involving observers is always optional. Their role is to provide feedback or ask
questions on areas they see as loopholes to the entire response plan.
TTX is a method of evaluating the accuracy and effectiveness of an emergency operations
plan. Thus, it has its strengths and weaknesses in assessing a facility’s EOP. The first advantage
of a TTX is that it is a low-cost but effective technique of assessing emergency roles, responses,
resources, and the overall plan in a stress-free environment (Pate et al., 2016). Due to the calmness
of the situation during a TTX, it becomes easy to work out issues collaboratively, which is another
On the cons of TTX, lack of urgency during the exercise can give the emergency personnel
a false impression of what real emergencies look like. Therefore, the personnel may experience
challenges during actual emergency operations. Consequently, using hypothetical situations
during a TTX may lull the participants into assuming emergency response, and planning is a simple
task (Joplin et al., 2018). Hence, obstacles during real emergency situations may deter them from
effectively handling their roles. Lastly, a TTX may lead participants to overlook various aspects
of emergency response, such as resource strain. This may lead to inefficiencies during actual
Evaluating the effectiveness of King Fahad Hospital’s EOP is one of the primary objectives
of this project. Therefore, the appropriate methods for accomplishing this task will be to do an
HVA and a TTX on the emergency operations plan of the hospital. During the HVA process, the
project will use the Kaiser Permanente hazard vulnerability analysis method to assess potential
emergencies that will impact the demand for King Fahad Hospital services as well as its ability to
issue those services.
This method will go hand in hand with THIRA (threat and hazard identification and risk
management), which is mostly combined with SPR (stakeholder preparedness review) guide and
used as one approach. The THIRA and SPR guide is more community-based; hence, it will help
in the reviewing and assessment of community-specific threats and the setting of targets with
regard to the hospital’s resource capabilities.
Further, the hazard vulnerability analysis process will be compared to the hazards
identified in King Fahad Hospital’s EOP to determine the relevance of the EOP and make
amendments where necessary. The use of both Kaiser Permanente’s HVA tool and a combination
of THIRA and SPR guide, thus, will ensure the hospital’s EOP covers all bases both internally and
externally in terms of emergency preparedness (Chandra et al., 2015). Also, it will assist the
hospital in knowing the relevant potential emergency response partners for different types of
The other method that the project will use is the use of a TTX to verify the effectiveness
and accuracy of King Fahad Hospital’s EOP. The TTX will determine the expectations of the
emergency response personnel by involving a facilitator, an evaluator, and observers. The main
goal of using a TTX will be to identify the strengths of the EOP as well as areas that need
improvement, develop an after-action report, and to help policymakers within the hospital evaluate
their EOP plans and procedures (Chandra et al., 2015).
The TTX will include various types of exercises such as walkthroughs, functional, fullscale, and tabletop exercises so that every responsible emergency personnel can take part in the
review of the EOP. This will be effective in ensuring they understand their roles, the hospital
knows its resource limits, and all the stakeholders, both internal and external, understand the
communication process of the emergency response plan.
The two methods will lead to a successful EOP review for King Fahad Hospital. This is
because a hazard vulnerability analysis presents the foundation of all emergency operations plans,
whereas tabletop exercises help in the identification of weak areas leading to necessary
modifications. All the review processes will be done against the hospital’s current EOP for ease
of identification of loopholes and modifications. Also, both methods will ensure every emergency
response personnel included in the King Fahad Hospital EOP participates.
Fulmer, K. L. (2015). Business Continuity Planning: A Step-by-Step Guide with Planning Forms.
Rothstein Publishing.
Kapucu, N., & Hu, Q. (2016). Understanding multiplexity of collaborative emergency
management networks. The American Review of Public Administration, 46(4), 399-417.
Lock, M. B., Fansler, C., & Webb, M. (2016). (R) Evolutionary Emergency Planning: Adding
Resilience through Continuous Review. International Journal of Risk and Contingency
Management (IJRCM), 5(2), 47-65.
Shah, G. H., Newell, B., & Whitworth, R. E. (2016). Health departments’ engagement in
capacity. International journal of health policy and management, 5(10), 575.
Lock, M. B., Fansler, C., & Webb, M. (2018). Emergency Planning (R) Evolution: Making a
Comprehensive Emergency Plan for the Present and the Future. In Library Science and
Administration: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications (pp. 1332-1358). IGI
Liu, B. F., Fowler, B. M., Roberts, H. A., & Herovic, E. (2018). Keeping hospitals operating during
disasters through crisis communication preparedness. Public Relations Review, 44(4), 585597.
Baybutt, P. (2017). Simultaneous Operation (SIMOP) Review: An Important Hazard Analysis
Tool. Process Safety Progress, 36(1), 62-66.
Du, Y., Ding, Y., Li, Z., & Cao, G. (2015). The role of hazard vulnerability assessments in disaster
preparedness and prevention in China. Military Medical Research, 2(1), 27.
Waters, J. R. (2017). Community hazard vulnerability assessments: how technology can assist in
Pine, J. C. (2017). Technology and Emergency Management. John Wiley & Sons.
Rossignol, N., Turcanu, C., Fallon, C., & Zwetkoff, C. (2017). “How are you vulnerable?”: Using
participation for vulnerability analysis in emergency planning. Journal of Risk
Research, 20(9), 1095-1114.
Borron, S. W. (2015). Checklists for hazardous materials emergency preparedness. Emergency
Medicine Clinics, 33(1), 213-232.
Skryabina, E., Reedy, G., Amlôt, R., Jaye, P., & Riley, P. (2017). What is the value of health
emergency preparedness exercises? A scoping review study. International journal of
disaster risk reduction, 21, 274-283.
Joplin, R., Karpinski, E., & Dring, R. (2018). Emergency Preparedness Exercise—Driving
Resiliency And Readiness. Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation, 2018(1),
Dausey, D. J., Buehler, J. W., & Lurie, N. (2017). Designing and conducting tabletop exercises to
assess public health preparedness for manmade and naturally occurring biological
threats. BMC public health, 7(1), 92.
Chandra, A., Williams, M. V., Lopez, C., Tang, J., Eisenman, D., & Magana, A. (2015).
Developing a tabletop exercise to test community resilience: Lessons from the Los Angeles
County Community Disaster Resilience Project. Disaster medicine and public health
preparedness, 9(5), 484-488.
Pate, A., Bratberg, J. P., Robertson, C., & Smith, G. (2016). Evaluation of a tabletop emergency
preparedness exercise for pharmacy students. American journal of pharmaceutical
education, 80(3), 50.
Floods Risk Perception, Preparedness, and Evacuation Intention among Saudi Older Adults.
Thomas Jefferson University
Floods risk perception, preparedness, and evacuation intention among Saudi older adults.
Continued awareness and clarity concerning the link between weather extremes and
climate change brings into attention natural hazards. Climate-induced natural disasters have been
on the rise since 1900. As recorded by the U.N Office for Disaster Risk Reduction and
International Disaster Database, one of the worst trends that are noticed as a result of climate
change is hazardous floods and storms. In various urban centers, flooding is of significant
concern because of increased population, infrastructure, and property. Disasters have frequently
been occurring, with older adults experiencing significant adverse effects. There is various
evidence that shows the vulnerability of older adults to natural disasters over the last few
decades; for instance, the 2005 Hurricane Katrina and the 2010 Japan earthquake and tsunami.
The residential settings type has a significant influence on the level of disaster preparedness and
response; for example, older people who are living in nursing homes have health and functional
challenges that need assistance with various daily activities. In case of an occurrence of a natural
disaster like floods, the level of assistance to these older adults should be highly pronounced.
However, the majority of older people live independently in the community, and they receive
help from friends, families, and community-based care. After a disaster, many older adults may
find themselves in their communities and homes without necessary support services. The
purpose of this research paper to evaluate floods risk perceptions, preparedness, and evacuation
intention among Saudi older adults. The article focuses on the purpose and needs of the study,
initial literature review, and is various issues in project development and direction.
Statement of Purpose of the Project
The occurrence of floods in Saudi has shown evidence of the vulnerability of older
people to natural hazards. Older adults bear the consequences of hazardous events due to their
perceptions of the disaster. Many studies concerning older adults’ vulnerability have indicated
old age as a significant indicator of vulnerability. Areas that have gained some concern are how
older people perceive disasters, their preparedness, and how they respond to these potential risks.
The knowledge of these elements forms the development of various strategies that will
accommodate the older adults’ needs and behavioral interventions to help them deal with floods.
The research will advance the understanding of the vulnerability of older people in flood risk
areas, especially in Saudi. This research discusses in length patterns in risk perceptions, practices
that are used during the preparedness process, and evacuation intentions.
The risk and impact of disasters have increased in the last few years. Evidence has
revealed that many individuals are getting exposed to disaster risks faster than the ability to
reduce these vulnerabilities to them (Montz, Tobin & Hagelman, 2017). The disaster
management framework is essential for providing a comprehensive plan for protecting people in
society, especially older adults. The priority for disaster management and reduction is
understanding the risk. Perceiving the disaster risk is a way of getting an in-depth understanding
of risks. Perceptions play a vital role in encouraging individuals to accept, avoid, and reduce risk.
To attain community preparedness, it is important to improve the perceived risk of disasters in
the community. Perceptions are mental processes that are internalized via cultural and social
education, and media reports, peer impact, and other communication ways act as moderators.
This research places older adults at the center of the study and also embraces their preparedness
and evacuation intentions alongside their perceptions of flood risks. The study focuses on older
adults in Saudi, which is one of the flood risk areas. Based on first-hand information gathered
through interviews, the research project looks for risk perception patterns, preparation practices,
and evacuation intentions. Some of the objectives of this research are to understand flood
disaster perceptions, the level of preparedness, and flood evacuation intentions and decisions that
older individuals make regarding evacuation. The research reveals an understanding of threats
associated with floods and analyzes perceptions of the hazard risks among older adults. Also, in
the project, there will be a description of the complexities that surrounds evacuation decisions
that are made by older adults. Low-risk perception could result in minimal coping mechanisms
among older people, while high-risk perceptions are related to the adoption of protective
behaviors that are vital for higher resilience. Increasing public awareness of risks that are
associated with disaster can influence older adults’ attitudes to be more proactive in disaster
preparedness. Exploration of older people’s perceptions of disaster risks can help public health
agencies and emergency team with useful information to formulate necessary risk management
strategies and educational programs. Many contextual factors form an explanation of why
individuals perceive risks in various ways. These features include hazardous events,
characteristics of risks or hazards, proximity to the hazardous event, availability of information,
demographic, and socioeconomic standing.
This research also seeks to understand preparedness during disaster occurrences like
floods in Saudi. First, it is vital to understand what preparedness is and how it is used as a
concept in practice. Preparedness is defined as readiness or the state of being prepared but which
comes with various meanings when used for a different type of event. As the cost and frequency
of disasters continue to increase globally, many initiatives concerned with the reduction of the
risk from natural hazards. Preparedness is recognized as one of the phases of disaster alongside
mitigation, response, and recovery that forms part of the disaster management cycle.
Preparedness assists in increasing the chances of survival and enables effective response during a
disaster. Preparation and mitigation support post-disaster recovery and restructuring efforts and
further enhance coping capacity towards future disasters.
Need for Study
Older adults in the times of a disaster are the most vulnerable category of people, as
indicated by experts and rescue teams in their specific roles or responsibility (Al-Rousan,
Rubenstein & Wallace, 2015). In this case, this shows the strong need to understand this topic to
better equip involved parties and the populations with the right information skills and also better
methods of disaster recovery, especially for these older adults. The older adults have perceptions
that, in many cases or during the occurrence of a disaster, leaves them exposed, vulnerable, and
also making it difficult for the rescue teams to rescue them effectively.
Natural disasters such as floods, epidemics, dust storms, and others are frequent in Saudi
Arabia, and many people are vulnerable (Rahman, Aldosary, Nahiduzzaman & Reza, 2016).
These disasters, especially floods, have portrayed the vulnerability of the elderly adults in these
environmental hazards, and this is contributed significantly by the perceptions that the elderly
adults hold, which in many cases hinder the evacuation process. This scenario creates the need
for further study of and research on this topic. This is because the cycles of disaster recovery are
going to be more efficient and reliable if experts and researchers understand, on a detailed level,
the perceptions of the elderly adults regarding disasters.
Citizens, especially of the Jeddah city in Makkah Province, are commonly affected by
floods, and the older adults are the most affected and also children. The further study of disaster
management in this topic on the perceptions of the older adults on natural disasters indicate that
preparedness, as well as the response and recovery if well designed or planned and efficiently
implemented, can combat these older people’s perceptions and cause them to be responsive.
Further or advanced need for studying this topic helps to develop and build literature, especially
on the health needs of older adults. This is because most of these perceptions obstruct the
administration of proper health care where epidemics arise, or waterborne disease that occurs
often after floods.
Aligning and extending current preparedness programs to involve these older adults helps
to enhance their disaster preparedness and resilience. The older adults do not prioritize disaster
preparedness. This is dangerous since this category of people due to their perceptions
significantly affect even evacuation procedures and other vital disaster management activities. In
Saudi Arabia, the perceptions of the elderly are further escalated by their religious beliefs and
lifestyle that sometimes forbids some critical or necessary activities in society. This signifies the
critical need for continued and further research into this matter. It is clear from these perceptions
that this age group lacks little understanding and awareness of the implications of the aftermath
of a disaster.
These elements and factors lead to the formulation of these studies, which places these
elderly individuals at the core center of research and analysis, which aims at providing a deeper
understanding of the critical need of embracing disaster preparedness and the intentions of
evacuation and also the elimination of these unhelpful perceptions. The need for this study in this
case of Saudi Arabia seniors prone to disasters gives a better dimension of understanding for the
researchers and other stakeholders. This is through the perceptions of the elderly, how much they
understand the disasters, and what it is to formulate better policies and programs that will give
them more knowledge and awareness. This knowledge and awareness in these situations help to
eliminate some of these perceptions.
By carrying out these studies on the older adults in disaster-prone areas in Saudi Arabia,
such as the regions in Makkah Province, the behaviors of these people gives an insight into the
government’s commitment and other disaster response operatives in helping them and also on
how to behave or respond in the event of a disaster, for instance, a dust storm or floods among
others. The studies also give additional literature or information on the exposure or vulnerability
of this age group from a cognitive and behavioral dimension. The study of these older Saudis is a
part of the developing work that seeks to bring to light the risks perceptions and self-protective
activities that endanger the older people.
Some of the perceptions include trust and belief in media and county officials of these
older people’s willingness to evacuate and also to follow the set preparedness programs (Yoo,
Lee & Tullmann, 2016). Other perceptions associated with older people are physical challenges,
such as hearing problems and frailty. Sometimes these older Saudis may carry the perception of
not hearing in a noisy disaster recovery center or difficulties in moving around in the recovery
center for the vital services. Due to such perceptions as hearing or even eye problems and frailty
in general, disaster preparedness activities and response may continue to be delayed and interfere
with a prompt response when an actual disaster occurs.
These studies also show that older people in Saudi Arabia due to these disaster
perceptions may not fully understand the stipulated compliance measures and steps that should
be followed when a disaster occurs, or during the aftermath of a disaster. It is through the
detailed study and research on this topic that we can fully understand and set the necessary
measures and policies that will help the older adults in Saudi Arabia. The key areas that stand to
benefit from these studies are such dispensation of better health care, allocation of resettlement
funds, and other vital materials in evacuation and the recovery phase of the disaster recovery
Literature Review
Peer-reviewed literature on flood risk perception, preparedness, and evacuation is quite
diverse. This is due to various factors like epistemological approaches on research analysis and
ontological beliefs. Ontology is concerned with the existence and reality structure; it is the study
of being. Ontological research is about the existence and the relationship between various
societal aspects like cultural norms, social actors and structures. In other words, ontology is
concerned with beliefs about the type and nature of reality and what exists. Epistemology is
generally the assumptions that people make about the nature of knowledge. It is a way of looking
at the nature or world and making sense out of it. For example, in this study , both quantitative
and qualitative are used in risk perceptions and evacuation studies, which assists the reseachers
to address issues like effectively introduce bias. Psychological approaches bring an
understanding of how individuals perceive different types of risks. Social- psychological studies
show how social factors, norms, attitudes influence a person’s ability and motivations for
preparedness. Also, sociology studies on disaster focus on how various social groups experience
disasters. To determine the literature search and eligibility criteria, search was conducted on
Google Scholar databases and Websites like EBSCO to obtain peer-reviewed and scholarly
articles that address the topic. I searched using different keywords like risk perceptions and older
adults, disaster preparedness in Saudi, Floods in Saudi, disaster preparedness, and evacuation
among older people. I picked the articles that followed this eligibility criterion; first, the hazard
type, which is a flood, second reported on disaster risk perceptions among older people including
preparedness and evacuation process, and third, that showed information about the occurrence of
disasters in Saudi.
Saudi Arabia is one of the countries that are particularly vulnerable to human-made and
natural disasters and threats as a result of long coastal zones, an annual mass gathering of
millions of Muslim pilgrims and its geographical landscape (Bachmann et al., 2015). During
2015, it is estimated that 12,000 people were affected by natural and human-made disasters, and
more than 2000 people were in need of emergency assistance. The most affected of this
population were older adults who were in need of assistance due to some of the challenges that
they faced mostly physically (Wang, 2016). Community preparedness and resilience efforts are
vital in mitigation of the disaster crises. Timely response and also the adequate response is
mandatory, and this can be enhanced by strengthening professional and effective preparedness
and response leadership (Tambo…

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