Essay on Causes of Car Accidents

Now a days a lot of car accident occur because of not leaving enough space between the drivers car and the car in front , or it could be because of being distracted by the phone while driving ,there are many different reasons why road accidents happen ,that’s why we are trying to incorporate the idea of Auto braking system in many different vehicle to solve the problem of terrible vehicle accidents , in this report we are going to discuss the different type of braking systems and the sensor type that are suitable to incorporate in the auto braking system
Auto Braking System
Auto braking system combine sensors and brake controls to help prevent high-speed collisions. Some automatic braking systems can prevent collisions altogether, but most of them are designed to simply reduce the speed of a vehicle before it hits something e.g. Figure 1,shows how it work .

Since high-speed crashes are more likely to be fatal than low-speed collisions, automatic braking systems can save lives and reduce the amount of property damage that occurs during an accident. Some of these systems provide braking assistance to the driver, and others are actually capable of activating the brakes with no driver input , Our hypothesis is that Automatic emergency braking system is very important to be in every vehicles these days because it can help decrease the number of accidents on the road and save human life’s .
A transceiver placed at the front of the car first emits ultrasonic waves which propagate and reflect back after colliding with the obstacle in the way, this signal is sensed and processed by receiver, microprocessor placed in respectively that is programmed to signal or apply the brakes by the help of mechanical mechanism provided in the car. The safe distance will be programmed into the commands of microprocessor that will only apply breaks if the body lies within the specified range Breaks are applied by the help of electric motors provided in or by Blocking the commands in the car to move towards the obstacle without turning the car. There will be first stop of the electric current to the motors in the car than application unretarding break bushes.
Types of Braking System
The main operate of the brakes is to decelerate or decrease the speed of a vehicle. By stepping on the foot pedal, the restraint compress against the rotor hooked up to the wheel, that then forces the vehicle to weigh down thanks to friction, we have a tendency to are about to establish the various styles of braking systems and that one is that the best for the machine braking system.
Power Brakes
Power Brakes could be a braking system that applies the engine power and therefore the power of the pufferies to assist the motive force in braking , though the traditional brakes generate enough force to cut back the speed of the vehicle , power brakes additional improve this power by finishing , those cases extremely effective braking , example: air suspended brakes, vacuum suspended brakes , hydraulic boosters and electrohydraulic boost brakes.
Hydraulic brakes
This varieties needs that the bale force comes from the motive force applying pressure on the pedal to convert into hydraulic pressure by hydraulic brake cylinder , then it’s transferred to the ultimate break disc rotor through an opportunity line .Brake fluid is employed rather than mechanical linkages in hydraulic brakes , for the transmission of the brake pedal force to prevent the vehicle. Most of the cars and bikes these days are equipped with hydraulic braking system owing to its high effectiveness and therefore the ability to produces high braking force.
Air Brakes
This system takes the air through a mechanical device to transmit brake pedal to force from brake pedal to final disc rotor . Air braking system are largely employed in significant vehicles like buses or tracks , as a result of hydraulic breaks is dangerous at transmission high break force through long distance on the opposite hand gas brakes give higher brake force that is requiredin significant vehicle. gas brakes are typically equipped with reserved air tank that is high once there\’s a haul within the breaks ,owing to a leak in break line . Most of the trendy cars use air brakes as a result of it’s move effective and fail proof.
Magnetic Brakes
In this breaking system works by the generated flux from permanent magnetic that’s causes the breaking of the vehicle. It works on the thought of passing a magnet through a copper tube . that enables the eddy current , the flux is generated to produce magnetic braking . Magnetic braking is a complicated technology wherever there\’s no pressure applied to cause breaking . This response to the breaking is quick compared with different braking systems.
Electric Brakes
It is kind of braking employed in electrical vehicle during braking is made exploitation the electrical motors which is that the main supply of power in electric vehicles, it\’s any divided into three types-

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Plugging Brakes-When the foot lever is ironed within the electrical vehicle equipped with plugging braking, the polarity of the motors changes that successively reverses the direction of the motor and causes the braking.
Regenerative Braking- it\’s the kind of electrical braking during the time of braking the motor which is that the main power supply of the vehicle becomes the generator i.e.

At the time that brakes used the ability provide cuts off to the energy of the wheels that cause rotating force for the motor that convert the energy to electrical energy that is save at the battery. Regenerative braking keep energy and wide employed in electrical vehicles. the foremost helpful regenerative braking is given by Tesla Model- S. one in all the electrical braking kind is named Dynamic or resistor braking this kind give the resistance by resistor that cause actual braking. resistor hooked up to the circuit that give the resistance to the motor that is liable for First State acceleration or stopping of the vehicle.
Sensor is associate device that maps associate environmental attribute to a quantitative mensuration. it\’s created to gatherdata concerning the planet. every device is predicated on a transduction construct that is conversion of energy from one type to a different form.
Ultrasonic device
This sensors has high frequency sound waves to seek out the pressure of associate object and its vary . The device measures the echo reflection of the sound from objects or find the interruption of the sound seem because the object puss between the transmitter and receiver.The normal frequency vary for human hearing is roughly 20to 20,000 Hz . Transducers are unit devices that convert power to energy, additionally converts received echoes into analog electrical signals .
The piezo effect refers to the voltage made between surfaces of a nonconductive substance once a mechanical stress is applied . Conversely once a voltage is applied across bound surfaces of a solid that exhibits the piezo effect, the solid undergoes a mechanical distortion. Such solids usually resonate at intervals slender frequency ranges.
Electricity materials employed intransducers, machine cartridges, microphones, associated strain gauges that manufacture an electrical output from a mechanical input. additionally employed in earphones associated unhearable transmitters that manufacture a mechanical output from an electrical input. unhearable transducers work to form unhearable waves through a medium like air. Transducers usually produce unhearable vibrations through the employment of electricity materials like bound styles ofcrystal or ceramic polymers
Discrete distances to moving objects will be measured. Also ,Less tormented by target materials and surfaces, and not tormented by color. Solid-state units have nearly unlimited, maintenance free life. ( unhearable realize little objects over long distances.)
1st warming of a wave electrode precludes the energy of unhearable waves emitted there from being increased to a sensible level. Second interference between the projected waves and also the mirrored waves takes place, and development of standing waves provides adverse effects. Third it\’s uphill to totally differentiate between mirrored waves from the paved surface and mirrored waves from different places.
Results and discussions

The braking of vehicle in time.
The large crashing distance during accident.
The safety during per crash.
The external safety to vehicle body
Reduction the requirement of internal safety device like air bags.
Safety and comfort ability of modern car.


It is programmed if program fail then system collapse.
Initial cost of equipment is high.
This system is used in the all of vehicle like car, motorcycle etc.
Automated guided vehicle in industries
Avoid accident during manufacturing in production line

Brakes are very important safety system of our vehicle . the brake system of our vehicle is the most important safety system that there is until know . the ability to slow the vehicle or stop at a citrine time will help to avoid accidents . searching for the suitable rooting and placement of the brakes and brake sensor.

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