Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

Annotated Bibliography

Barrison, I. G., Waterson, E. J., & Murray-Lyon, I. M. (1985). Adverse Effects of Alcohol in Pregnancy. British Journal of Addiction, 80(1), 11–22.

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Barrison et al. focus on the adverse effects of alcohol in pregnancy. Alcohol consumption affects a growing foetus and may cause various problems, including simple complications like retardation in growth to severe impacts like foetal alcohol syndrome. The syndrome is associated with both physical and mental issues and comprises a facial appearance that is common with children born to chronic alcoholic women. Other characteristics common in moderately drinking women include increased rates of abortion, stillbirth, and congenital malformation. This study would help to determine the effects of drinking during pregnancy, benefits of abstaining from alcohol during pregnancy, and give estimates of appropriate levels of alcohol intake in pregnancy. 

Mukherjee, R., Wray, E., Hollins, S., & Curfs, L. (2015). What does the general public in the UK know about the risk to a developing foetus if exposed to alcohol in pregnancy? Findings from a UK mixed methodology study. Child: Care, Health & Development, 41(3), 467–474.

Mukherjee et al. focus the foetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), which are a set of conditions that occur when a foetus is exposed to alcohol leading to some consequences which experts believe are preventable. The study was conducted in the UK, and it aimed to assess how informed individuals are concerning FASD since knowledge is a crucial tool against in the development of a public health strategy to combat the condition. The study would help determine the level of knowledge about FASD and assess whether there is a need for more campaigns to increase awareness. Moreover, it provides the importance of spreading knowledge and alerts the community about sources of confusion. 

Wacha and Obrzut discuss the severe and permanent adverse effects of Prenatal alcohol exposure with the most severe result being fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). The study suggests that FAS can affect the neuroanatomical and neurophysiological constitution of the brain and even affect some particular neuropsychological functions of the brain. The authors are interested in the effects of PAE or FAS and thus illustrates how they affect the specific parts of the brain that are impacted when pregnant women drink alcohol. The article provides a detailed knowledge of which parts are affected by alcohol and will help individuals to understand in details how the whole body system operates when a pregnant lady drinks alcohol, and it ends up in the child’s body system.    

Watson, S. L., Coons, K. D., & Hayes, S. A. (2013). Autism spectrum disorder and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Part I: A comparison of parenting stress. Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability, 38(2), 95–104.

Watson et al. compare the levels of stress experienced by parents of children with various disabilities. The study aims to examine the stress of parents of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) to parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The research indicated that parents of children with FASD experience more stress. The study would help understand the severity of challenges experienced by parents of children suffering from FASD.        

Westrup, S. (2013). Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: as prevalent as autism? Educational Psychology in Practice, 29(3), 309–325

Westrup focuses on educating the public and learning institutions about FASD and identify ways in which school-going children suffering FASD can be assisted. The article is meant to help identify individuals recognize and support FASD in schools. Besides, it will help individuals learn more about the condition and how to manage it.

Williams, B. F., & Howard, V. R. (1994). Fetal alcohol syndrome: Developmental characteristics and directions for further research. Education & Treatment of Children, 17(1), 86.

Williams and Howard focus on how the importance of identifying Fetal alcohol syndrome in young children. The article also touches on diagnostic areas for FAS recognition, the theories, on the existence of FAS, short term and long term effects of FAS and ways of reducing the occurrence of FAS.  The article will, therefore, be instrumental in finding out how alcohol causes FAS and provides the reader with some characteristics of the syndrome as well as prevention techniques.

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