I need help writing a lab report

the format should be like this

Title and Purpose

- Procedure and Observations
- Data and Calculations ( I don’t have the calculations since we didn’t do the lab yet, just leave it in blank)
- Results and Conclusions
- Answers to questions in manual

and I have attached an example of the lab report please do it the the same

I have also attached our calculations for this lab

Laboratory 3 Freezing Point Depression

Colligative properties of solutions depend only on the concentration of the

solution. Freezing point depression is an example of a colligative property.

Drivers on icy streets depend on it. Salt placed on the road in the winter,

dissolves into the snow or ice and lowers the freezing point of water, preferably

below the road’s temperature.

Pure water freezes at 0o C. If one mole of dissolved particles is added to

one kilogram of water it dissolves at -1.86 oC. This gives the freezing point

constant for water, kfp = 1.86oC/m, where m is molality of the solution. Molality is

defined as the moles of solute per kilogram of solvent. When salt is dissolved in

water, two ions are present in solution, Na+ and Cl-, so the number of particles is

two, and if one mole of sodium chloride is dissolved in one kilogram of water the

freezing point of the water drops from 0 oC to -3.72 oC. If one mole of sugar is

dissolved in one kilogram of water the freezing point will be -1.86 oC because

sugar does not dissociate and gives only one particle in solution with water. So it

is clear why salt is used instead of sugar on icy roads.

This freezing point depression constant is only good for water. Each

solvent has a different kf.

The general equation for freezing point depression is:

ΔTfp = i kfp m

(1)

where ΔTfp is the freezing point change, kfp is the freezing point

depression constant and m is the molality of the solution, and i is the van Hoff’t

factor which tells the number of particles in solution. For NaCl this is 2. For

sugar this is 1. Molality is as the unit of concentration instead of molarity.

Molarity has the units moles solute/liter solution. Liquids tend to change volume

when the temperature changes therefore molality, which is a temperature

independent unit is used.

In this experiment first we will determine the freezing point of the pure

material, stearic acid. Then we will determine the freezing point depression

constant, kfp, of this material using a known substance, and finally we will

determine the molar mass of an unknown substance, by its freezing point

depression of stearic acid.

The normal freezing point is determined by removing heat from a

substance. In theory when heat is removed from a liquid the liquid will decrease

in temperature until it reaches the freezing point. The liquid then stays at the

freezing point until it becomes a solid, and then the temperature of the solid

decreases. The freezing point is determined to be the constant temperature or

the flat part of the cooling curve. In practice when you remove heat from a liquid,

21

there is a fast decrease in temperature for the liquid, followed by a much flatter,

but still sloped section where freezing occurs. The experimental cooling curve

for stearic acid is given in Figure 1.

Cooling Curve

95

90

85

Temperature (Celsius)

y = -0.105x + 89.378

80

Freezing Point is the intersection of the

two lines

75

70

y = -0.0085x + 66.2

65

60

55

0

100

200

300

400

500

Time (seconds)

For a pure substance typically a very nice cooling curve is obtained.

Solutions may exhibit more complicated cooling curves. An example of cooling

curve for a solution is shown below:

22

600

Cooling Curve 2 (Stearic Acid with Palmitic Acid)

85

80

y = -0.11x + 80.667

Temperature (Celisus)

75

Freezing point is the

intersection of the two lines

70

65

y = -0.0089x + 63.694

60

55

0

100

200

300

400

500

600

Time (seconds)

Because it is difficult to obtain a good cooling curve for the solutions, be

sure that they are well mixed and 100% dissolved, and measure them very

carefully. For both of the cooling curves given above, two straight lines have

been fit to the data, one for the portion where the liquid is cooling and one for the

portion where freezing occurred. A consistent method for determining the

freezing point is to use the temperature at which these lines intersect, which is

indicated by the vertical arrow on both plots. The minor grid lines have also been

included to make it easy to read the temperature.

Procedure: The freezing point of stearic acid

1. Prepare a hot water bath in a 250 mL beaker. Place it on the hot plate

and begin to heat it. Take a large test tube and add 3 grams of stearic acid.

Measure the mass exactly.

2. Using your test-tube holder, put the test tube into the hot water bath.

Put your thermometer into the test tube, not the water bath.

3. When the stearic acid has completely melted, remove it from the hot

water bath and insert the test-tube into a block of Styrofoam, which has a hole for

the test tube in it.

4. Record the temperature every 30 seconds until the stearic acid has

completely solidified.

23

700

Repeat the procedure using the same sample of stearic acid.

Plot the cooling curve for stearic acid, temperature (y axis) versus time for

both cooling curves. You can plot the data using EXCEL, but however you plot

the data you must read the value of the freezing point to one decimal point.

Directions for making a plot with EXCEL

First start the program, in a windows system usually you use a double

click.

The program opens to a fresh sheet. To move between sheets, click on

the tabs on the bottom of the page. The first step is to input some of your data.

The easiest method to keep everything straight is to use different sheets for your

different cooling curves. Use the first sheet to analyze your freezing point of pure

stearic acid. In the first column enter the time. Just type in the number and hit

return. In the second column, type the temperature. Now plot the line.

To make a graph in Excel 97, I have found the easiest method is to

make sure your x values are in one column and your y values are in the next

column. Using the mouse highlight your data, x and y for your standard curve.

Then click on the chart wizard icon, it looks like a bar graph. A series of 4 dialog

boxes open to make the chart.

Dialog Box 1: First the chart wizard asks what type of graph you want.

Click on xy plot, on the right side of the window it asks what type of xy plot you

want. Click on the style of graph you like. For this graph you will sketch your

own line so just use plot points without a line.

Dialog Box 2: Now the chart wizard asks if the data you want plotted is

A1:B5. If the range is what you want hit the next button, otherwise edit the range

of data, and then hit the next button.

Dialog Box 3: gives you the opportunity to add legends or labels if you

like. So you will be able to read the temperature values accurately, click on

gridlines and check the box for minor gridlines for the y-axis. When you are

happy with your graph, click on next.

Dialog Box 4: gives you a choice of placing the chart on the page with the

data or on a new page. Decide which you want, typically a new page is neater.

Click finish, and a graph of time versus temperature appears.

You should see two regions with two different slopes. The intersection of

these two lines gives the freezing point of pure stearic acid. Take the average of

the two freezing points to get the freezing point of pure stearic acid. If your two

values differ by more than 2o C take another cooling curve. You can compare

this value with a literature value from either the Aldrich catalogue or the CRC

Handbook.

24

Part 2 Freezing point depression constant of stearic acid

Weigh about 0.5 g of palmitic acid. Record the mass to the nearest

milligram. Add this to your test tube containing stearic acid. Calculate the

molality of the solution. Mix the solution thoroughly.

Using the same procedure as above, take a cooling curve for this solution.

Using your test tube holder put the test tube into the waterbath. As the solution

dissolves use a stirring rod to mix it thoroughly. Remove the liquid solution from

the hot water bath and place it in the insulated block. Again record the time and

temperature every thirty seconds until the solution is completely solid. Thaw the

solution and repeat the procedure. The freezing point of the solution is the

intersection of the two lines with different slopes. Plot both cooling curves and

determine the freezing point of the solution. Average the two measurements to

get the freezing point; remember it should be lower than that of pure stearic.

Once again if your two freezing points differ by more than 2o C, you should

repeat the measurement one more time, or if your average freezing point is

higher than that of pure stearic acid. Now we can use equation 1 to determine

the freezing point depression constant for stearic acid. Determine the molality of

the solution, and then the freezing point depression constant.

Discard the solution in the appropriate waste container.

Part 3 The molar mass of an unknown compound

Using a clean the test tube. Add 3 grams of pure stearic acid. Record the

number of your unknown in your lab notebook. Add about 0.5 g of your

unknown, recording the mass to the nearest milligram. Determine the freezing

point of your unknown solution by again recording two cooling curves. ΔTfp =

the freezing point of pure pure stearic acid minus the freezing point of the

unknown solution. Using the average of your two freezing points determine ΔTfp.

The molality of your solution, m = ΔTfp / kfp , where kfp was determined in part 2.

Determine the molality of your unknown solution. The molality is moles solute/kg

solvent. Determine the moles of unknown solute in the solution.

This is the number of moles present in your test tube. The molar mass of

your unknown is grams/mole. Divide the recorded mass of your unknown by

moles unknown to determine the molar mass.

Hints for organizing data and performing calculations:

You could set up one big data table with all the data you need to collect.

Pure Stearic Acid

MassInitial stearic acid =

Palmitic acid

Masspalmititc acid added =

25

Unknown

MassUnknown

Run 1

Time

Run 2

Temp

Time

Run 1

Temp

Time

Run 2

Temp

Time

Run 1

Temp

Time

Run 2

Temp

Time

Temp

Plot both pure runs on the same graph using different colors or x’s and o’s.

You want to do this while taking the data, or immediately after so you can see if

there is any problem. Determine the freezing points and average the two runs.

Plot your other runs in the same fashion. In your notebook write

stearic acid

acid

with Palmitic acid

with Unknown

Tf = Here put the values with the correct significant figures in each column.

For palmitic acid and your unknown:

i = 1, neither will dissociate in stearic acid

ΔTf = the difference of the freezing point of each solution and pure stearic

molality for palmitic solution is:

moles palmitic acid/kg stearic acid = mpalmitic acid

and now for stearic acid kfp , = ΔTfp palmitic acid /mpalmitic acid

Using this kfp, determine the molality of your unknown solution.

munknown = ΔTfp unknown / kfp

To get the moles of unknown from the molality of the unknown solution

remember m=moles solute/kg solvent. Just multiple the molality by the kg of

stearic acid used.

From this molar mass unknown, MM, is:

MM = massunknown / molesunknown

Question:

Based on the information in the introduction how much NaCl in grams is needed

to lower the freezing point of 1.2 liters of water 2.5oC? How many grams of

CaCl2 would be needed?

Safety and Disposal:

The stearic acid, palmitic acid and unknown solutions should be placed in the

waste container provided. To get the last bit out of the test tubes, rinse with hot

isopropanol.

26

Measurement of Physical Properties

In any measurement it is important to know the precision of the

measurement and also its accuracy. All physical measurements should be made

as precisely and accurately as possible. Maximizing the precision of a

measurement is accomplished by using the most precise equipment available,

and using it properly. If possible it is also wise to compare your result with either

a known or theoretical value.

Significant Figures

When calculating a result from more than one measurement it important to

retain the uncertainty information from all the measurements. There is an entire

field of mathematics devoted to this topic. In this course we use the relatively

simple method of significant figures. A summary of the rules with examples:

Addition and subtraction: line up the numbers to be added or subtracted;

the answer is truncated to the decimal place of the least precise number.

Ex. 12.1 + 2.345 = 14.4

15.678 – 2.2 = 13.5 (notice I rounded up)

Multiplication and Division: Significant Figures in the answer are equal to

the number of significant figures in the least precise number.

15.6 x 2.1 = 31

16.789 ⎟ 25.67432 = 0.65392

25.1 x 3.00 = 75.0

Note zeroes before another number as in 0.65392 do not count. In the

middle and the end they count.

Laboratory Notebooks

In this course you will be required to keep a laboratory notebook. A good

laboratory notebook is an accurate record of everything, which occurred in the

lab. In patent disputes a good lab book versus an inaccurate lab book can mean

millions of dollars. In this course it may mean hundreds of points. Before the lab

you will be required to prepare a lab report outline to be completed during the lab

session. Each lab report will contain:

7

Title and Purpose

1. Procedure and Observations

2. Data and Calculations

3. Results and Conclusions

4. Answers to questions in manual

An example of a lab report is shown below:

1. Title: Density of liquid and a solid.

Purpose to measure the density of a liquid and an unknown solid.

2. Procedure:

Observations

Part 1 Liquid

Unknown # 5 smells like gasoline

Weigh an empty 10.0 mL volumetric flask

Fill with unknown liquid.

Weigh filled volumetric flask

Mass of empty flask = 12.032 grams

Mass of full flask = 18.685 grams

Part 2 Solid

Part 2 Unknown #12 Shiny orange color

Fill a graduated cylinder with about 25 mL of

water

Measure precisely volume of water.

Volume of water = 24.83 mL

Volume of water + metal = 28.53 mL

Mass of Dry metal = 46.409 grams

weigh dry solid sample

Data and Calculations:

Part 1 Liquid:

Density = Mass / volume

Mass of liquid = mass of liquid + flask – mass of flask = 18.685 grams – 12.032 grams = 6.652

grams.

Density = 6.652 grams / 10.000 mL = 0.6652 g/mL

Part 2 solid

volume of solid = volume of solid + water – volume water = 28.53 mL – 24.83 mL = 3.70 mL

density = 46.409 g/3.70 mL = 12.5 g/mL

Results and Conclusions:

The density of the liquid was determined to be 0.6652 g/mL by comparison with the

density table in the CRC it appears the sample could be hexane, which has a density of 0.660

g/mL

The density of solid was 12.5 grams / mL. The solid looked like copper, but the density of

copper from the CRC is: 8.94 g/mL, which is significantly less than my unknown sample.

Therefore although the sample looks like copper it must be something else.

8

In this example, the data is recorded in the section with the observations,

and the procedure is recorded in one column and the observations are recorded

in an adjoining column. This allows you to record your observations with the

correct section of the procedure. In some experiments, the type and volume of

data is better recorded in a table. In this case it should follow the procedure

section. You should still leave room in the procedure section for observations.

One of the objectives of this course is for students to learn how to determine

what data they need to collect, and how to organize it. For some experiments

explicit instructions for organizing the data and calculations will be given, but for

other experiments you will need to determine this for yourself before class. In the

case of repetitive calculations tables are necessary. A spreadsheet such as

Excel can be used, and instructions are included for the Reaction Rate

experiment. All your calculations must follow the rules for significant figures and

every value must have a correct unit. A spreadsheet or calculator will not

determine the correct number of significant figures; it is up to you.

When determining the results and conclusions, there are some things to

keep in mind. The results should relate back to the purpose. Address directly if

the purpose was fulfilled. If the result is a number clearly restate what it is and

the unit for the number. If possible compare your result with a literature value. If

you received no result or an unexpected result, give some scientific explanation

of this. Human error is not a good explanation, because the experiment or

section, which was in error, should be repeated. Thoroughness is important but it

is not necessary to write everything you know about density or volume etc.

To be ready to use all the lab time efficiently, before lab class you should

have completed the purpose, procedure and arranged the data table or written

down what you need to measure.

Lab Instructors may have additional report requirements.

9

The price is based on these factors:

Academic level

Number of pages

Urgency

Basic features

- Free title page and bibliography
- Unlimited revisions
- Plagiarism-free guarantee
- Money-back guarantee
- 24/7 support

On-demand options

- Writer’s samples
- Part-by-part delivery
- Overnight delivery
- Copies of used sources
- Expert Proofreading

Paper format

- 275 words per page
- 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
- Double line spacing
- Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.

That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

Read moreEach paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

Read moreThanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.

Read moreYour email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.

Read moreBy sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.

Read more