a vast amount of information and are a shorthand notation that can be understood by chemists and other scientists alike. For example, a very quick inspection of the balanced chemical equation below shows that the reactants and products are easy to discern from one other simply by identifying the chemical species on the left or right of the arrow.
2H2(g) + O2(g) → 2H2O(l)
Figure 1: Reaction of hydrogen gas and oxygen gas to produce liquid water. The reactants are to the left of the arrow and the product to the right.
Further, the whole-number coefficients give the relative amounts of the species with respect to one another; this enables chemists to quickly acquire some quantitative information that could be useful in the laboratory. These quantitative relationships or quantitative deductions drawn from the balance chemical equations (and subsequent calculations) can be grouped under a single umbrella term called stoichiometry.
In this laboratory, we will be investigating the stoichiometric relationship involving the reaction of sodium chloride (NaCl) and silver nitrate (AgNO3). When combined, these reactions will produce stoichiometric amounts of sodium nitrate (NaNO3) and solid silver chloride (AgCl). Take a moment to formulate and write down a hypothesis about this reaction and its stoichiometry. This chemical reaction can be seen below in the form of the complete and balanced molecular equation. As one can infer from this brief introductory information, a thorough knowledge of the associated chapters reading for this week is critical to performing well; you are encouraged to read these required sections before starting this lab.
NaCl(aq) + AgNO3(aq) → AgCl(s) + NaNO3(aq)
Figure 2: The balanced molecular equation for the reacting chemical species in this laboratory.
There are several objectives of this lab:
Before you start this laboratory assignment, you are encouraged to review Section 4.3 on page 193 in the textbook. Throughout this laboratory assignment, you will be required to perform and thoroughly document your calculations pertaining to the stoichiometry associated with the reaction above. Be sure to record all observations and any relevant notes that you think you will need to include in your laboratory report.
Preparing the Lab I
Before completing this lab, you will need to conduct a thorough analysis of your data in order to answer the mandatory questions below. You will need to include your responses to these questions in your written report in the appropriate section(s). You can use the virtual lab to investigate answers to these questions.The solution labeled ‘Solution 1’ in the Stockroom contains 2.00 g NaCl. How many grams of AgNO3 must be added to the solution to the solution to completely react with NaCl according to the reaction in the background section?The solution labeled ‘Solution 2’ in the Stockroom contains 3.00 g NaCl.If excess NaCl is added to the solution, how many grams of AgCl solid will be formed?
Performing the Experiment
This section should include notes about any observations or data collected during the lab.
This section contains key information that must be included in your typed report.
Note: All reports will be graded using the rubric embedded within the course.
Here are some questions to consider as you write your report:
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