Statement of the overall results The frequencies matched and no number was off meaning that the Hardy Weinberg principle was used correctly. When counting and figuring out the two different equations the numbers fit together. ‘V. Materials: 1. 100 blue beads 2. 100 white beads 3. Two containers to put the beads in 4. Paper 5. Pencil 6. Calculator V. Results/Data: Figure 1 In the above picture labeled “Figure 1”, the simulation of the production of 100 offspring was recorded. This came from random mating of the “parental population” (the blue and white beads).
Each offspring is represented by a pair of beads (which represent the gametes), the genotypes are as follows; B, B, b their frequencies are recorded in the table below: Table 1 Genotype Frequency Bad-homozygous dominant 26 B-heterozygous 50 b-homozygous recessive 24 Alleles B- black fur 103 b- white fur 97 A. The Hardy-Weinberg Principle predicts that genotypes frequencies of offspring will be the same as those of the parental generation. This prediction Was true for this lab, this conclusion can be made because all Of the offspring were either of black and or white fur.
B. There are five major assumptions for the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, if one of them was violated then the frequencies would end up being different, NY one of them could cause this, most likely the mutation one because that would cause for different offspring to happen and thus for different frequencies. Genotype Frequency Table Frequency 0. 26 0. 5 b 0. 24 Phenotype Frequency Table Phenotype B 0. 51 0. 49 A. There are 200 alleles present for the trait of fur color. B. There are a total of 100 beads to represent black fur and 100 beads to represent white fur.
C. 1 00 beads represent the population. VI. Conclusions: The hypothesis “If students follow the Hardy Weinberg directions properly then their traits will fit into the law because no other evolutionary influences ill interrupt this lab” is accepted. The hypothesis made at the beginning of the lab was accepted because the students did follow the Hardy Weinberg directions properly and their traits did fit into the Hardy Weinberg law because none of the frequencies came out wrong.
It can be concluded that none of the five major assumptions for Hardy Weinberg were violated which is why the frequencies fit into the law. The lab relates to the lecture because students are currently discussing evolution and how it works. The Hardy Weinberg principle involves evolution because it discusses how genotype regencies would be if no other evolutionary influences were present. Something that doesn’t necessarily happen since in the real world there are evolutionary influences present all over the world and in all of the populations.
The lab is significant because it allows students to see how the world would be if we didn’t have any evolutionary influences present in our world, influences such as mutations, natural selection, genetic drift/migration, etc. The lab relates to the real life because it helps to explain why humans and other earth’s organisms are the way they are, and that is because of evolution. Evolution has helped humans to become more resistant to diseases, and it has helped some organisms survive for as long as possible (or at least long enough to reproduce).
If real life was the way the Hardy Weinberg principle requires it to be then some organisms on earth wouldn’t be here, this is something that this lab allowed students to understand. The lab can be applied to the scientific field of genetics. The lab can be applied to this field because geneticists look at organisms genes and by understanding the Hardy Weinberg principle then they would understand the way evolution arks and how it affects the different genes that different organisms have.
The lab could improve by having smaller groups, this improvement is needed because it is hard for such big groups to do math together. There were times were one person would count a specific amount of beads and then the other two partners would count something different and then the whole group would get really confused which is why it would be better to have smaller groups to avoid the confusion. Another improvement would be to obtain more beads, maybe this was the reason such big groups were made, so if ore beads were available then smaller groups would be made.
One error would be the one described above, students were having a hard time with keeping count of their beads, one way to avoid this without making smaller groups would be to write down the numbers and not split up the numbers between group members. Another error was that some beads were dropped and thus the numbers were messed up, a way to avoid this would be to have bigger beads that won’t fall so easily. A new question that students could investigate would be, what if their parental population mixed with another group? R what if a new bead color (new population) was introduced? VI. Lab Questions: 1 .
Allele- one of two or more alternative forms of a gene that arise by mutation and are found at the same place on a chromosome. 2. Gene- a unit of heredity that is transferred from a parent to offspring and is held to determine some characteristic of the offspring. 3. Dominant allele- An allele that expresses its phenotypes effect even when heterozygous with a recessive allele. This one is the stronger allele. 4. Recessive allele- The opposite of a dominant allele, this one has a weaker allele. . Homozygous- a pair of matching alleles, which are the two genes that control a particular trait. 6.
Heterozygous- a pair Of genes where one is dominant and one is recessive Verifying the Hardy-Weinberg Principle 1 . There are five conditions that a population must meet in order to be in the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, those conditions are as follows; No genetic drift, No migration, No mutation, No selection, and random mating so no differential reproduction. 2. The percent for the recessive allele is 30, meaning that the left over is the percent for the dominant allele: 70%. With Hardy Weinberg second equation (pap+ups+qua -? 1) one can see that the heterozygous is represented by the (ups) part, by putting the numbers in place ( xx . X . 3) then the answer would be obtained, which is 42. 42 is the frequency of the dominant allele. 3. The frequency for the dominant allele is 0. 51 when the frequency of the homozygous dominant genotype is . 49 4. If the frequency of the homozygous recessive genotype is 0. 36 then the frequency of the dominant allele is 0. 64. 5. Fifth frequency of the homozygous dominant genotype is 0. 49 then the frequency of the anonymous recessive genotype is 0. 51 6. The two Hardy Weinberg Equations are: up + ups + q = 1 a.
The first equation (p + q = 1) relates to the frequencies of the alleles at a particular gene locus b. The second equation (up + ups + q = 1) relates to the frequencies of the genotypes for a particular gene locus. C. The first equation (p + q = 1) relates to the frequencies of the phenotypes for a gene. Questions for Further Thought 1 . Natural selection allows for the “sundial of the fittest” meaning that if there is a human who has no mouth then this human will not survive because he/ he cannot feed and thus will be selected to die and not reproduce because it is not adapted to fir environment.
A perfect, real example are finches, they have different beaks because they have accommodated their bodies depending to the environment, these beaks will allow them to survive more than the other finches who haven’t gone through natural selection. 2. Natural selection is the process whereby organisms better adapted to their environment tend to survive and produce more offspring. It can drive evolution because it can change the population and eventually the whole population will be changed because those organisms are the ones that survived and lived on, the ones that didn’t survive didn’t successfully go through natural selection.
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