IHP 525 Final Project Data Analysis Guidelines and RubricOverview

Now that you have submitted your article review, you will submit Your Final Project Data Analysis. The Final Project Article Review was an opportunity to

demonstrate your ability to interpret statistics included in an article. The Final Project Data Analysis is a chance to show that you know how to choose the

correct statistics to analyze a set of data and calculate these using software.

Regardless of their field of interest, health professionals across disciplines need to be able to run basic biostatistical calculations to describe a set of data.

The Final Project Data Analysis reinforces these critical skills by asking you to conduct your own analysis of a small data set, explain the basic parameters of the

data, graph it, and run simple tests. You will present this data analysis in a brief statistical report, using language appropriate to a non-technical audience.

The Final Project Data Analysis consists of four milestones, submitted in Modules Two, Three, Five, and Seven. The final submission occurs in Module Nine.

In this assignment, you will demonstrate your mastery of the following course outcomes:

Perform basic, context-appropriate statistical calculations and hypothesis testing in accurately analyzing biostatistical data

Interpret key biostatistical metrics, methods, and data for addressing population-based health problems

Communicate biostatistical results, procedures, and analysis to other health professionals and the general public for informing their decisions related to

population-based health problems

Prompt

Biostatisticians are constantly called upon to analyze data in order to help researchers and health officials answer critical questions about populations’ health.

For this assessment, you will imagine you are a biostatistical consultant on a small study for a local health organization. In the Assignments Guidelines and

Rubrics area of the course, you will use the Data Analysis Data Set and Data Analysis Data Description, along with some background information on how and

when the data was collected and the general research question the organization is interested in answering. This is often the way you will receive data in the real

world.

Your task is to help the organization answer their question by critically analyzing the data. You will compute your chosen statistics, interpret the results, and

present the results and recommendations to non-technical decision makers in the form of a data analysis. Keep in mind that it is your job to do this from a

statistical standpoint. Be sure to justify your conclusions and recommendations with appropriate statistical support.

Specifically, you must address the critical elements listed below. Most of the critical elements align with a particular course outcome (shown in brackets).

I.

Introduction

A. State the overall health question you have been asked to address in your own words. Be sure you capture the key elements of the question,

using language that a non-technical audience can understand.

B. Assess the collected data. Use this section to layout the source, parameters, and any limitations of your data. Specifically, you should:

1. Describe the key features of your data set. Be sure to assess how these features affect your analysis.

2. Analyze the limitations of the data set you were provided and how those limitations might affect your findings. Justify your response.

C. Process: Propose how you will go about answering the health question you were asked to address based on the data set provided.

II. Data Analysis

A. Graphs: In this section, you will use graphical displays to examine the data.

1. Create at least one graph that gives a sense of the potential relationship between the two variables that form your chosen health

question. Include the graph and discuss why you selected it as opposed to others.

B. Conduct an appropriate statistical test to answer your health question.

C. Explain why this test is the best choice in this context.

D. Analysis of Biostatistics: Use this section to describe your findings from a statistical standpoint. Be sure to:

1. Present key biostatistics from the graph(s) and statistical tests and explain what they mean. Be sure to include a spreadsheet showing

your work or a copy of your StatCrunch output as an appendix.

2. What statistical inferences or conclusions can you draw based on the results of your statistical test and graph? Justify your response.

III. Conclusions and Recommendations

A. How do the findings help answer your overall health question? Remember to use brief, non-technical language to ensure audience

understanding.

B. Recommend areas for further research based on your findings. Remember to use brief, non-technical language to ensure audience

understanding.

Milestones

Milestone One: Select Health Question

In Module Two, you will identify the health question you will be researching for instructor feedback and approval. Milestone One should be several sentences in

length. This milestone is graded with the Milestone One Rubric.

Milestone Two: Describe the Data

In Module Three, you will describe the key features of the data set, including limitations that might exist. Milestone Two should be one or two paragraphs in

length. This milestone is graded with the Milestone Two Rubric.

Milestone Three: Process and Calculations

In Module Five, you will create a table in which you propose the calculations (descriptive statistics and statistical test) and graph(s) you will need to perform to

answer the health question you are investigating. Then you will complete the table. For Milestone Three, you will submit this completed table. This milestone is

graded with the Milestone Three Rubric.

Milestone Four: Data Analysis

In Module Seven, you will submit the data analysis section of Final Project Data Analysis. This section includes the graph(s) and statistics you conducted on the

data set to answer the health question. This milestone is graded with the Milestone Four Rubric.

Final Project Data Analysis

In Module Nine, complete the conclusions section and the rest of the completed data analysis (including graph(s), statistical output for chosen test, or Excel

spreadsheet with calculations). You have been working on this analysis in Milestones One through Four. Before submitting, revise each section of the analysis

based on the feedback you received from your instructor and peers. It should be a complete, polished artifact containing all of the critical elements of the final

product. It should reflect the incorporation of feedback gained throughout the course. This submission will be graded using the Final Project Data Analysis

Rubric.

Deliverables

Milestone

Deliverable

One

Select Health Question

Two

Describe the Data

Module Due

Grading

Two

Graded separately; Milestone One Rubric

Three

Graded separately; Milestone Two Rubric

Five

Graded separately; Milestone Three Rubric

Three

Process and Calculations

Four

Data Analysis

Seven

Graded separately; Milestone Four Rubric

Final Submission: Final Project Data Analysis

Nine

Graded separately; Final Project Data Analysis Rubric

Final Project Data Analysis Rubric

Guidelines for Submission: Your data analysis should be approximately 3–5 pages long (including graphs or spreadsheet with calculations), double-spaced, 12point Times New Roman font, with one-inch margins and citations in APA format. Be sure to use language and a style appropriate for a non-technical audience.

Critical Elements

Introduction: Health

Question

[IHP-525-05]

Exemplary

Proficient

States overall health question

in own words, capturing key

elements of question while

using language appropriate for

a non-technical audience

Meets “Proficient” criteria and

demonstrates a sophisticated

awareness of the features’

influence

Meets “Proficient” criteria and

justification provides keen

insight into how data quality

affects findings

Describes key features of data

set and assesses how features

affect analysis

Introduction: Process

[IHP-525-02]

Meets “Proficient” criteria and

process proposed is wellaligned with health question,

taking most direct path to

answer

Proposes process of answering

health question based on the

data set provided

Data Analysis:

Graphs: Graph

[IHP-525-02]

Meets “Proficient” criteria and

graph incorporates appropriate

scaling and is exceptionally

well-tailored to the intended

audience

Creates a graph that gives a

sense of the potential

relationship between two

variables that form the chosen

health question and discusses

why this graph was selected

over others

Introduction: Data:

Key Features

[IHP- 525-03]

Introduction: Data:

Limitations

[IHP-525-05]

N/A

Analyzes limitations of data set

provided and how those affect

findings, justifying response

Needs Improvement

States overall health question in

own words, but response

contains inaccuracies, omits key

details, or does not use language

appropriate for a non-technical

audience

Describes key features of data set

and assesses how features affect

analysis, but response contains

inaccuracies or omits key details

Analyzes limitations of data set

and how those affect findings,

but does not justify response,

response contains inaccuracies,

or justification is illogical

Proposes process of answering

health question based on data

set, but response contains

inaccuracies, omits key

procedures, or procedures

suggested are inappropriate

Creates a graph that gives a sense

of the potential relationship

between two variables that form

the health question and discusses

why this graph was selected over

others, but graph is

inappropriate, reasons are

illogical, or response contains

inaccuracies

Not Evident

Does not state overall health

question in own words

Value

8

Does not describe key features of

data set and assess how features

affect analysis

9

Does not analyze limitations of

data set and how those affect

findings

8

Does not propose process of

answering health question based

on data set

9

Does not create a graph that

gives a sense of the potential

relationship between two

variables

9

Critical Elements

Data Analysis: Test

[IHP-525-02]

Exemplary

Meets “Proficient” criteria and

demonstrates an astute ability

to accurately and effectively

conduct the test

Proficient

Conducts appropriate

statistical test accurately to

answer chosen health question

Data Analysis: Best

Choice

[IHP-525-02]

Meets “Proficient” criteria and

makes cogent connections

between the test and graph or

data

Meets “Proficient” criteria and

explanation effectively

communicates meaning of the

calculations in audienceappropriate language

Explains why test is the best

choice in this context

Data Analysis:

Analysis: Biostatistics

[IHP-525-03]

Presents graph and statistical

test results, including

spreadsheet showing work or

computer output, and

accurately explains what

chosen calculations mean

Draws appropriate statistical

inferences based on statistical

hypothesis test results and

graph and justifies response

Data Analysis:

Analysis: Statistical

Inferences

[IHP-525-03]

Meets “Proficient” criteria and

thoroughly explains how these

statistics define the population

Conclusions: Findings

[IHP-525-05]

Meets “Proficient” criteria and

demonstrates a complex grasp

of elements necessary to

answer the overall health

question

Meets “Proficient” criteria and

recommendations including

what additional information

would help better answer

question

Assesses how findings help

answer overall health question,

using brief non-technical

language

Submission is free of errors

related to citations, grammar,

spelling, syntax, and

organization and is presented

in a professional and easy to

read format

Submission has no major errors

related to citations, grammar,

spelling, syntax, or organization

Conclusions:

Recommendations

[IHP-525-05]

Articulation of

Response

Recommends areas for further

research based on findings,

using brief, non-technical

language

Needs Improvement

Conducts statistical test to

answer chosen health question,

but response contains

inaccuracies or test is not

conducted appropriately

Explains why test is the best

choice in this context, but

explanation is cursory or contains

inaccuracies

Presents graph and statistical test

results, including spreadsheet

showing work or computer

output, and explains what they

mean, but response contains

inaccuracies or omits key details

Draws appropriate statistical

inferences based on test results

and graph, but does not justify

response, justification is illogical,

or response contains inaccuracies

Assesses how findings help

answer overall question, but does

not use brief, non-technical

language, or response contains

inaccuracies

Recommends areas for further

research based on findings,

including additional information

to better answer question, but

does not use brief, non-technical

language, recommendations are

illogical, or response contains

inaccuracies

Submission has major errors

related to citations, grammar,

spelling, syntax, or organization

that negatively impact readability

and articulation of main ideas

Not Evident

Does not conduct appropriate

statistical test to answer chosen

health question

Value

9

Does not explain why test is the

best choice in this context

9

Does not present graph and

statistical test results, including

spreadsheet showing work or

computer output and does not

explain what these calculations

mean

Does not draw appropriate

statistical inferences or

conclusions based on test results

and graph

9

Does not assess how findings

help answer overall health

question

8

Does not recommend areas for

further research based on

findings, including additional

information that would help

better answer question

8

Submission has critical errors

related to citations, grammar,

spelling, syntax, or organization

that prevent understanding of

ideas

5

9

Critical Elements

Exemplary

Proficient

Needs Improvement

Not Evident

Total

Value

100%

IHP 525 Milestone Four

Student Name

IHP 525 Milestone Four

To identify the relationship between the variables age of the myocardial infection patient and the gender

of the patients, the descriptive statistics based on gender class is as shown:

Summary statistics for age:

Group by: gender

gender n

Mean

Variance Std. Dev. Std. Err. Median Range Min Max Q1 Q3

0

65 65.353846 194.45096 13.944567 1.7296107

65

53

39

92

56 76

1

35 73.628571 194.29916 13.939123 2.3561419

79

59

32

91

66 84

Graphical Analysis

When one of the variables is qualitative, and the other is quantitative, the best choice of the graph is

Histogram and Box-and-whiskers plot. Histogram can help understand the distribution of a quantitative variable

(in this case, age) for each of the groups of the qualitative variable (in this case, gender). Likewise, Box and

whiskers plot helps understand the distribution of quantitative variables for each class of the qualitative

variable. The box plot and Histogram of the distribution of ages for each gender class are as shown:

Figure 1 Box and Whiskers Plot of Age for each gender

Figure 2 Histogram of Age for each gender group

Hypothesis Testing

To examine the severity of myocardial infection between male and female patients, it is critical to

identify whether the age of MI patients significantly differs between males and females or not. The defined

hypothesis for the test is:

Null hypothesis: age does not determine the severity of myocardial infarction.

Alternative hypothesis: age determines the severity of myocardial infarction.

Mathematically,

𝐻0 : 𝜇1 = 𝜇2

𝐻1 : 𝜇1 ≠ 𝜇2

Where,

𝜇1 represents the population mean of Male MI patients’ age.

𝜇2 represents the population mean of Female MI patients’ age.

Two sample T-test

The independent sample t-test or 2 sample t-test is the best choice to compare the means of two groups

or distribution. The reason for selecting a two-sample t-test is that the dependent variable is quantitative (or age

in this case), the independent variable is the group (or gender in this case), and there is no repeated

measurement. The test result is as shown:

Two sample T hypothesis test:

μ1: Mean of Male

μ2: Mean of Female

μ1 – μ2: Difference between two means

H0 : μ1 – μ2 = 0

HA : μ1 – μ2 ≠ 0 (without pooled variances)

Hypothesis test results:

Difference Sample Diff. Std. Err.

μ1 – μ2

DF

T-Stat

-8.2747253 2.9228339 69.756002 -2.8310625

P-value

0.006

Explanation of Findings

The descriptive statistics show 65 males and 35 females in the MI patient’s collected sample. The

average age of Male MI patients is 65.35 years. At the same time, the average age of Female MI patients is

73.63 years. The standard deviation in the age of the Male MI patient and the female MI patients is 13.94 years.

Thus, on average, the age of MI patients is relatively higher for females than males. The median age of the Male

MI patient is 65 years, and the female MI patient is 79. It is also observed that the median age of Female MI

patients is higher than the mean, which points out that the distribution of Female MI patients’ age is left-skewed

(or negatively skewed, having a longer tail towards the left side). Also, the distribution of male MI patients’ age

is approximately normal. The minimum and maximum age of Male MI patients is 39 and 92 years, respectively,

and the female MI patient minimum age is 32, and the maximum age is 91 years.

The graphs, i.e., histogram and box and whiskers plot, explain that the distribution of Male MI patients’

age is approximately normal, and the distribution of Female MI patients’ age is left-skewed. Additionally, the

box and whiskers plot points out the presence of an outlier in the Female MI patients’ age distribution having

the patient’s age of 32 years.

The two-sample t-test results show that the difference in average ages of the male and female is 8.274

years. The average age of Female MI patients is higher than male MI patients. The degrees of freedom for the

two-sample t-test without pooled variance is 69.75, the t-test statistics is -2.83, and the p-value of the test

statistics is 0.0061.

Statistical Inference from the Analysis

Initial analysis through the descriptive statistics and the plots of the distribution of Myocardial Infarction

Patients for Gender class show that the average age of Male patients is lower than female patients. The twosample test result shows that the p-value (=0.0061) is less than 0.01 level of significance. Thus, the test rejects

the null hypothesis, and it concludes that there is a significant difference between the age of Male and Female

Myocardial Infarction patients. Thus, the severity of myocardial infarction is reflected earlier in male patients

than in female patients. However, correlation is not always causation; thus, there is a need to investigate the

causes of such a relationship between gender and age.

Appendix 1: Complete Table of Milestone 3

Question:

What is your health (research) question?

Answer:

Does age determine the severity of myocardial infection

between male and female patients?

Null hypothesis: age does not determine the severity of

What are the corresponding null and

alternative hypotheses?

myocardial infarction.

Alternative hypothesis: age determines the severity of

myocardial infarction.

List the descriptive statistics you will

compute, using which variable(s) to help

Mean, median, and standard deviation.

answer your health question.

What is the name of the statistical test you

will use to test your hypothesis and answer

2 sample t-test

your health question?

What is the formula for your chosen statistical

test?

Why is the statistical test you chose

appropriate to answer your health question?

Be clear on how the two variables you

described in Milestone Two are used to

complete this test.

The 2 sample t-test is applicable when testing the difference

between two population means. In this case, it is the most

appropriate for comparing sample one data (male patients)

and sample two data (female patients).

Which graph(s) (Histogram, stem and leaf,

boxplot, bar graph, scatterplot) will you use to

visualize the answer to your health question?

Be specific and include which variables will

be used and if the graph will be created for

different subgroups of subjects.

Bar graphs and histograms will be appropriate for this data

because they give a visual representation of the differences

and similarities of the variables.

Appendix 2: Screenshot of Work done in Statcrunch:

Descriptive Statistics & Histogram

Hypothesis Test By Split of Columns Based on Gender

IHP 525 Milestone Three Table

For this milestone, in order to explore your health question you are investigating, you need to plan what descriptive

statistics and statistical test you will need to run, as well as what graph you will need to create.

Step 1: Complete the table below in which you will propose the calculations and graph(s) you will need to perform to

answer the health question you are investigating.

Question:

What is your health (research) question?

What are the corresponding null and alternative

hypotheses?

Answer:

Does age determine the severity of myocardial infection between

male and female patients?

Null hypothesis: age does not determine the serevity of myocardial

infarction.

Alternative hypothesis: age determine severity of myocardial

infarction.

List the descriptive statistics you will compute,

using which variable(s), to help answer your

health question.

What is the name of the statistical test you will

use to test your hypothesis and answer your health

question?

What is the formula for your chosen statistical

test?

Mean, median and standard deviation.

Why is the statistical test you chose appropriate to

answer your health question? Be sure to be clear

on how the two variables you described in

Milestone Two are used to complete this test.

Which graph(s) (histogram, stem and leaf,

boxplot, bar graph, scatterplot) will you use to

visualize the answer to your health question? Be

specific and include which variables will be used

and if the graph will be created for different

subgroups of subjects.

The 2 sample t-test is useful when testing the difference between

two population means. In this case, it is the most appropriate for

making a comparison between sample one data (males patients)

and sample two data (female patients).

Bar graphs and histogram will be appropriate for this data because

they give visual representation of the differences and similiarities

of the variabls.

2 sample t-test

Step 2: Provide a one- to two-paragraph explanation below as to why you chose the calculations outlined in the table

above to explore your health question. Describe what statistics you will compute in order to answer your chosen health

(research) question. Be sure to discuss any graphs that you will compute and what information they will provide to help

you answer your health question.

Age difference may or may not be a determinant of the severity of myocardial infarction (MI). the use of null and

alternative hypothesis can help derive the answer to the question. A true null hypothesis who indicate that age is a

determinant of the sereverity of Myocardial infarction. The alternative hypothesis refutes the claim that age determine the

severity of MI. the use of mean, standard deviation and median will show the association between age variation and

severity of MI.

(

9:127

learn.snhu.edu

Third Feedback on 3/7/22:

Morning Bianco,

MUCH, MUCH, MUCH better job on your milestone from week

7! I think you’re on the right track now!

The 7-2 milestone deliverables:

1. Use the table from Milestone #3 listing the statistics you

planned to complete to investigate your health question. In

Milestone #4, you are responsible for completing these

calculations.

2. Be sure to show all the work in your calculations so that I

can assist you in redirecting if need be.

3. Be sure to complete this assignment using the Milestone

Four Guidelines and Rubric PDF document.

a. Graphs: In this section, you will use graphical displays

to examine the data.

i. Create at least one graph that gives a sense of the

potential relationship between the two variables

that form your chosen health question. Include the

graph and discuss why you selected it as opposed

to others.

b. Conduct an appropriate statistical test to answer your

health question.

c. Explain why this test is the best choice in this context.

d. Analysis of Biostatistics: Use this section to describe

your findings from a statistical standpoint. Be sure to:

i. Present key biostatistics from the graph(s) and

statistical test and explain what they mean. Be

sure to include a spreadsheet showing your work

or a copy of your StatCrunch output as an

appendix.

ii. What statistical inferences or conclusions can you

draw based on the results of your statistical test,

descriptive statistics and graph? Justify your

response.

You did an good job meeting the expectations for the week-7

deliverable mentioned above. Really nice job on your graphs,

calculations, and interpretations Bianco. I think you need to adjust

your hypotheses though under you hypotheses testing section to

reflect the variables your studying in your milestone and data

analysis project (age and gender). I’d recommend going with

“Gender does not impact age of MI'” for your null hypothesis and

“Gender does impact age of MI” for your alternative hypothesis.

I’d also recommend removing the last sentence in your milestone

as you not looking at correlations anymore. I appreciate your time

and effort.

You were able to “Meet” or “Exceed” expectations on all the

critical elements! Please see the attached rubric for a breakdown

of your grade and my feedback. Please note that I had to deduct

4.5 points (10%) for tardiness. Overall, much better job though

Bianco. Keep up the good work!

Please let me know if you have any questions.

Respectfully,

Dr. Knight

Rubric Name: IHP 525 Milestone Four Rubric

Done

Milestone Four Rubri

9:13 1

(CO

learn.snhu.edu

The 5-3 milestone deliverables:

a. State the following:

a. Create a table in which you propose the calculations and

graphs you will need to perform to answer the health

question you are investigating. Then explain why

you chose these calculations to explore your health

question.

You did an excellent job meeting the expectations for the week-

5 deliverable mentioned above. You did a nice job completing

your table, your tests/graphs were appropriate for your

question, and your explanation was thorough. I’d recommend

you change your question to “Does age affect the survival

(follow-up status) of MI patients?” in row 1 in your table as

“severity” isn’t one of the variables and might be misconstrued.

Thus, I’d change your hypotheses to reflect that as well (Ho:

age does not impact survivability and Ha: age does impact

survivability).

Overall, good work though. I appreciate your time and effort.

You were able to “Meet” or “Exceed” expectations on all the

critical elements! Please see the attached rubric for a

breakdown of your grade and my feedback. Please note that I

had to deduct 4.5 points (10%) for tardiness.

Please let me know if you have any questions.

Respectfully,

Dr. Knight

Rubric Name: IHP 525 Milestone Three Rubric

IHP 525 Milestone Three Rubric

A

100 / 100

Score

40.5 / 45 – A-

Feedback Date

Feb 18, 2022 11:42 PM

Assignment

5-3 Final Project Data Analysis Milestone Three: Process and

Calculations B.

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