The Tasks

The task involves upgrading and refurbishment of all public toilets in the building. The conditions for the refurbishment works include carrying out a complete strip down of the existing fixtures and fitting, installing new sanitary ware, cubicles, tiling, flooring, plumbing, lighting, hand dryers, extraction equipment and decorations. A requirement is that at all times, at least one male or female toilet must be operational on each floor and at least one executive toilet. The refurbishment work is set to begin no sooner than 2nd July 2018 and completion date not later than 30 September 2018.

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Materials Requirements

The materials selected are determined by factors such as budget, washroom environment and use, aesthetics and the period when the toilets are to be taken out of action.

Movement of Materials

The materials will be moved using two cargo lifts. Incoming materials will use the Eastern cargo lift while outgoing materials will use the Northern cargo lifts. All material will be loaded to a trolley cart to ensure that fragile material does not break due to slipping.


The floors will have non-slip, vinyl and non-slip floor tiles. There will also be non-slip finish to avoid the possibility of accidents. The flooring area will be prepared using self-leveling screed. This will be followed by laying of Polysafe nonslip vinyl flooring on the rooms and lobby through an application of adhesives and cove forms on the edges.


This will have suspended ceiling with a plasterboard with a paint and decorated finish. The ceiling will have the capability of coping with higher humidity levels. The ceiling will be installed with ceiling tiles, 600mm by 600mm Danotile white ceiling tiles.


The walls will be comprised of wall tiles, wall cladding, and wall paneling systems. The general rule for the wall is that harder wearing wall finishes comes with an increased overall cost but with ease maintenance and longer life. The tiles to be installed will be white gloss wall tiles of 400X250mm.

Toilet Cubicles and Paneling

The premier range of the materials to be used will be Solid Grade Laminate (SGL). The lavatories will have standards height WC cubicles with duct panel sets. There will be installed modesty screens and coat hook rail. There will be urinal duct panel sets


There will be installed concealed cisterns and automatic toilet sensor flush kits, urinal bowls, urinal sensor flush control kit, and powered sensor taps.

Electrical Work

There will be LED Downlights for use with some being used for emergencies with a battery for backup. These will be switched using PIR sensor. Their toilets will also have biorier executive hand dryers.

Other Items

These include mirrors, mounted soap dispensers, brushed jumbo toilet roll holder and a site for unwanted materials, cleans rooms and wipe down surfaces. Removal of resultant waste after stripping down the old toilets

The waste generated after stripping down the existing structure will be removed using the trolley carts and the lifts. It will be filled in heavy duty trolley carts which will be carted away using the cargo lifts to the ground floor and out of the building to a designated dumping site awaiting clearance by a dump truck.


 Strip down-existing structure and removal of resulting waste from the building.1 day
 Structure the cubicles and panels2 daysa.
 Work on the Walls1 dayb.
 Install plumbing1 dayc.
 Install sanitary ware1d.
 Fitting the ceiling2c.
 Installation of electrical fittings and gadgets1g.f
DurationPrecedentEarliest Start timeLatest finish TimeSlack Time
 Strip down-existing structure and remove resultant waste1 day000
 Structure the cubicles and panels2 daysa.110
 Work on the Walls1 dayb.330
 Install plumbing1 dayc.462
 Install sanitary ware1d.573
 Fitting the ceiling2c.451
 Installation of electrical fittings and gadgets1g.f770

Critical Path Analysis

The critical path analysis seeks to determine the longest path of planned activities to the end of the project. To calculate this, it is important to have a list of all activities that are required to complete the project, the duration required to complete each task, and the dependencies that exist between the articles. With this, it is possible to calculate the earliest and latest time that each activity can start and finish without affecting the set project duration.

The critical path is the longest path which cannot be delayed without affecting the project duration. It also determines the activities that have a float and can this be delayed without affecting projecting duration. As indicated on the table above, the critical path for the refurbishment of the toilets of the commercial buildings.

Critical Path= a-b-c-f-h-i-j

                        1+2+1+3+1+1=9 days

Activities with float= d, e & g

The following activities in the project should be focused on to ensure that the project is completed within the stipulated period.

a.                     Strip down-existing structure

b.                     Structure the cubicles and panels

c.                     Work on the Walls

f.                      Flooring

h.                     Installation of electrical fittings and gadgets

i.                      Decorations

j.                      Clean-up

Work Schedule

The critical path for the project is nine days. This is the least amount of days that each the refurbishment works will take on every floor. The time allocated for the refurbishment work is four months from June to September. To accomplish this task within the stipulated time, works should be concurrently carried out in at least three floors. During the period of doing the construction, at least one male or female toilet must be operational on each floor and at least one executive toilet.

Work Breakdown Structure           

Toilet Specification

Room Structure

  • The cubicle size for both male and female toilets will be 100cm wide and 150cem deep
  • There will be cleaners’ cupboard installed on all floors


These are the tangibles in the toilet that a user sees. They make up the interior of the toilet and they include; walls, ceilings, floor, doors and mirrors.


  • The walls need to have durable, cleanable smooth finishes
  • Eggshell finish will be used for paintworks.
  • Standard sized tile will be used for the male and female toilets while the executive toilets will have panels in laminate
  • The walls where tilling will take place will be prepared using a white waterproof grout and polysulphide mastic sealant at the base.
  • On the urinal walls, stainless splash backs will be used.


  • Suspended ceilings will be having a grid of measurements 600X600mm.
  • The ceilings will have the controlled and accesses using flash luminares.


  • The floors will be installed with a vinyl finish.
  • The tiles used will be non-slip
  • After their installation, a coat of non-slip sealant will be added to increase the protective capability
  • Edges will be covered using vinyl


  • Doors to be used will be solid hardwood
  • The colors on the doors will have a contrast effect to allow easy identification for the visually impaired.
  • The outer most toilet door leading to the hallway will have a Push/Pull doorstops
  • The doors will have standard locks fitted in.


  • All toilets shall be fitted with mirrors
  • These mirrors shall be screwed 30cm above the sinks.

Toilet Fittings


  • There will be wash hand basins
  • Armitage shanks 50cm sinks will be used.
  • These sinks will have one tap hole and an overflow hole.


  • The urinals will have automatic sensor that detect the presence of an occupant to save water.
  • Armitage Shanks Bowls will be used


  • The fitted taps will be TF4000S Mixer Taps.

Cistern and W/C Pans

  • These will be fitted with Armitage Shanks 21 of with an appropriate height

Toilet Seats

  • The toilets to be fitted will be anti-vandal type with no seat cover.
  • The toilet seats will have an open front as a hygiene measure
  • The best quality for the toilet seating is the Carrera and Matta

Sanitary Bins & Waste Bins

  • Each female toilet cubicle and one executive toilet will have a sanitary bin
  • There will be a waste bins for all toilets

Toilet Roll Holders

  • Every toilet cubicle will be fitted with a roll holder that will be placed on the hinge side of the cubicle

Soap Dispenser

  • Just above the sinks, there will be fitted with some soap dispensers which will be fixed by screwing

Hand Dryers

  • Just near the exit door of each toilet area, there will be Dyson Air blade for drying the hands.

Electrical Works

Hot/Cold fittings

  • There will be 15mm BN EN 1057 table X copper pipework.
  • 900 action isolating valves to deal cater for hot and cold water will be installed at a point close to service point.
  • The metallic piped fittings shall be electrically connected
  • The general requirement is that the pipework needs to be non-ferrous, fastened properly and with the fully insulated.


  • Lighting equipment will be 150 Lux average from floor level.
  • These lighting will have automatic sensing equipment with adjustable capability of 4-25 minutes.

Small Power Equipment

  • Equipment such as hand driers and water heaters will be supplied with electricity from dedicated circuits channeled from the distribution boards.
  • It will be relevant to label all wiring accessories with the correct circuit numbers.


  • The toilets will be connected to the central ventilation system for the whole building to ensure compliance

Quality Control

There will be proper documentation of the works done and the equipment fitted in the toilets; this is meant to provide a comparative tool to ensure that the project meets the stipulated specification and for easy identification of errors of omission.

The operatives engaged to carry out the project will have appropriate skills and experience in handling toilet refurbishments. A file with their evidence of the qualifications will be maintained. The quality of all equipment to be fitted is paramount. All equipment used will be new and sourced through the set procurement standards. This will seek to ensure that products are consistent in size, kind, quality and general appearance.

The execution of the project needs to ensure that all equipment is fixed applied and installed securely, neatly and well aligned. The dimensions are to be adhered to. It will be critical ensure that finished works are no defects. The joints will need to be made even and regular.

Compliance is a crucial quality control requirement that will be addressed. Evidence of compliance will be provided that will detail the properties tested, pass/fail mechanism, test procedures, results of the tests, date and time of the test and analysis of the results.

Drainage Systems

The drainage system will have single stack system where will have to offer quick, quiet and complete, self-cleansing in normal use. The drainage should be without blockage, crossflow, and reduce the risk to health. The system should be capable of handling pressure fluctuations at about 38 mm water gauge. The water seals will be 25mm.

The components of the drainage system will be from the same manufacturer to ensure consistency. The electrolytic corrosion will need to avoid contact with metal where thereby avoiding corrosion. Plastics and galvanized steel pipes will be fixed in a manner that it will not bend. The pipework installed in the system should have an allowance for thermal and building movement. To offer protection of the system, there will be fitting of temporary caps that will prevent ingress of debris. The access covers and blanking plates will be fitted as the work proceeds.

The pipe routes will use the already laid systems which have limited beds. The routes for the pipes will need to follow the routes marked in the drawings. The fixing of the piping will need to be securely fixed. The discharge stack pipes will be connected below the socket collar or coupling. Any branching and low gradient parts will be to be fixed uniformly to ensure efficient drainage. Additional support will be provided where deemed necessary to offer support to the junctions and a shift in the direction. For the vertical pipes, support will be added to every floor. The fixings will also be progressively tightened to ensure that on every floor, the fixings as self-supporting. Any joint will need to be made using the appropriate materials that are intended for the purpose and to ensure that they offer durable connection.

Costing Items

The major cost centers for this project include

  1. Power
  2. Lighting
  3. Fuel
  4. Safety healthy and welfare
  5. Storage facilities
  6. Rubbish disposal
  7. Cleaning
  8. Protection of various work section

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