Moraine Valley Community College Health & Medical Worksheet

SAINT XAVIER UNIVERSITYSchool of Nursing and Health Sciences
EXSC 275, Exercise Physiology for Sport (4)
Fall 2022, Lecture: TTh 12:30p – 1:50p
Labs: M 9:00a – 11:00a
W 9:00a – 11:00a
Name: ___________________________________
Date: _______________
Lab #3 – Flexibility and Fitness
Introduction and Purpose
The Sit and reach test are one of the linear flexibility tests which helps to measure the extensibility
of the hamstrings and lower back. It has a simple procedure, is easy to administer, requires
minimal skills training for its application, and the equipment necessary to perform the test is
affordable. Furthermore, it is also a field test which is easy to administer in a community setting
with a large scale of population size. A good level of flexibility of the hamstrings and lower back is
advocated as it plays a key role in health-related fitness. Areas where it is important include:

Injury prevention – acute or chronic musculoskeletal injuries and lower back problems
Risk of falling
Gait limitations
Postural deviations

The sit-and-reach test (SRT) is commonly used to assess flexibility of the spine and
length of the hamstring muscles.

The objective of the Queen’s College Step Test is to monitor the development of the
athlete’s cardiovascular system.

Sit and reach box


Sit and reach test
This test involves sitting on the floor with legs stretched out straight ahead. Shoes should be
removed. The soles of the feet are placed flat against the box. Both knees should be locked and
pressed flat to the floor – the tester may assist by holding them down. With the palms facing
downwards, and the hands-on top of each other or side by side, the subject reaches forward along
the measuring line as far as possible. Ensure that the hands remain at the same level, not one
reaching further forward than the other. After some practice reaches, the subject reaches out and
holds that position for at least one-two seconds while the distance is recorded. Make sure there
are no jerky movements.
Queen’s College Step Test
The participant steps up and down on the platform at a rate of 22 steps per minute for females
and at 24 steps per minute for males. The participants are to step using a four-step cadence, ‘upup-down-down’ for 3 minutes. The participant stops immediately on completion of the test, and the
heart beats are counted for 15 seconds from 5-20 seconds of recovery. Multiply these 15 second
readings by 4 will give the beats per minute (bpm) value to be used in the calculation below.
An estimation of VO2max can be calculated from the test results, using the following formulas. A
rating can be determined using the VO2max norms.
Males: VO2max (mL/kg/min) = 111.33 – (0.42 x heart rate (bpm))
Females: VO2max (ml/kg/min) = 65.81 – (0.1847 x heart rate (bpm))
Sit and reach test
Lemmink et al., showed moderate inter class correlation coefficient (r) of 0.57 and 0.74 in middle
aged older men and women respectively. Ayala F et al., showed acceptable reproducibility
measures for the sit and reach test with 8.74% coefficient of variation (CV) and 0.92 intra-class
correlation coefficient (ICC). According to the meta-analysis done by Vega et al., Sit-and-reach
tests had a moderate mean criterion-related validity for estimating hamstring extensibility (mean
correlation coefficient, r = 0.46 – 0.67), but they had a low mean for estimating lumbar extensibility
(r = 0. 16-0.35). Therefore, the evidence demonstrates that sit-and-reach tests have a moderate
mean criterion-related validity for estimating hamstring extensibility and classic sit and reach test
protocol seems to be best to estimate hamstring flexibility.
Queen’s College Step Test
The reliability test re-test reliability for recovery heart rate has been measured as r = 0.92. The
validity correlation between recovery heart rate and VO2max has been measured as r = -0.75.
Normative values of Sit and Reach Test
32 – 41cm
36 – 44cm
21 – 29cm
26 – 35cm
15 – 20cm
16 -25cm
8 – 15cm
7 – 15cm
1 – 7cm
5 – 6cm
Very Poor

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