Natural Selection in Human Industrial Societies

Factors Affecting Fertility Rates

Evolution relies on fertility rates. It is determined by sex and reproduction. For instance, individuals who have more offspring contribute significantly to evolution by passing their genes in huge numbers to the next generations. Fertility rates involve the measure on the average number of children a woman can have in her childbearing years. Importantly noted, fertility rates vary according to countries and durations. Several factors, medical, economic, and social among others affect fertility rates. Consistently, we identify the use of contraceptives that is characteristic of the modern society that affects fertility rates.

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In modern society, there are different types of contraceptives used including pills, IUDs, injections, and condoms among others. Contraceptives are used to allow people to attain the number of children they desire and help them space children. In this sense, the use of contraceptives is largely intended to prevent a pregnancy. Thus, it is not surprising that the level of contraceptives use is causally related to fertility rates. Ideally, as Singh, Bankole, and Darroch (2017) noted, the use of contraceptives affects fertility by reducing unwanted or unplanned pregnancies. In this case, women get pregnant when they want and avoid pregnancies when they do not want them. 


Singh, S., Bankole, A., & Darroch, J. E. (2017). The Impact of Contraceptive Use and Abortion on Fertility in sub-Saharan Africa: Estimates for 2003-2014. Population and Development Review, 43, 141-165.

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