NUR 3805 Florida State University Nursing Role and Scope Questions

Nursing Role and Scope

1.  Think about the ethical theories and approaches in Chapter 4 and the moral conflicts you have experienced in the past.  Have you used one of these approaches to resolving conflict?  Which theory or approach have you used?

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2. Has there ever been a time when you have experienced the dilemma of having to make a choice that you know will affect the well-being of another individual? Have you ever experienced moral suffering?

Chapter 4
Foundations of
Ethical Nursing
• Ethics versus morals
• Bioethics
• Nursing ethics
• Moral reasoning
– Kohlberg
– Gilligan
Values in Nursing
• Values emphasized in the Code of Ethics with
Interpretive Statements (ANA, 2001)
– Wholeness of character
– Integrity
– Basic dignity
– Personal dignity
Ethical Theories and Approaches
• Virtue ethics
• Natural law theory
• Deontology
• Utilitarianism
• Ethics of care
• Ethical principlism
Ethical Principlism
• Autonomy
• Beneficence
• Nonmaleficence
• Justice
Professional Ethics and Codes
• The Nightingale Pledge (1893)
• Nursing Ethics: For Hospital and Private
Use (1900)
• ICN’s Code of Ethics for Nurses (1953)
• ANA’s Code of Ethics for Nurses (1950)
ANA’s Code of Ethics for Nurses
• Nine provisions with interpretive statements
containing specific guidelines for clinical
practice, education, research, and
• The code is considered to be nonnegotiable in
regard to nursing practice
Examples of Themes in the Code of
Ethics with Interpretive Statements
• Respect for autonomy
• Self-preservation
• Relationships
• Environment and moral
• Patients’ interests
• Collaboration
• Privacy
• Competent practice
• Accountability and
• Contributions to the
nursing profession
• Human rights
• Articulation of
professional codes by
The ICN Code of Ethics for Nurses
• Nurses have 4 fundamental responsibilities:
– To promote health
– To prevent illness
– To restore health
– To alleviate suffering
Common Themes of ANA & ICN Codes
• Focus on the importance of nurses delivering
compassionate patient care aimed at alleviating
suffering; patient is the central focus of nurses’ work
• Applies to all nurses in all settings and roles;
nonnegotiable ethical nursing standards with a focus
on social values, people, relationships, and
professional ideals
• Share values of respect, privacy, equality, and
• Both codes illustrate idea of nurses’ moral selfrespect
Ethical Analysis and Decision Making
in Nursing
• Ethical dilemmas and conflicts
• Moral suffering
• Team approach
• Case-based approach using 4 topics method
– Medical indications
– Patient preferences
– Quality of life
– Contextual features
Medical Indications
• What is the patient’s medical problem? History?
Diagnosis? Prognosis?
• Is the problem acute? Chronic? Critical?
Emergent? Reversible?
• What are the goals of treatment?
• What are the probabilities of success?
• What are the plans in case of therapeutic failure?
• In sum, how can this patient be benefited by
medical and nursing care, and how can harm be
Patient Preferences
• Is the patient mentally capable and legally competent? Is
there evidence of incapacity?
• If competent, what is the patient stating about preferences
for treatment?
• Has the patient been informed of benefits and risks,
understood this information, and given consent?
• If incapacitated, who is the appropriate surrogate? Is the
surrogate using appropriate standards for decision making?
• Has the patient expressed prior preferences?
• Is the patient unwilling or unable to cooperate with medical
treatment? If so, why?
Quality of Life
• What are the prospects, with or without treatment, for a
return to normal life?
• What physical, mental, and social deficits is the patient
likely to experience if treatment succeeds?
• Are there biases that might prejudice the provider’s
evaluation of the patient’s quality of life?
• Is the patient’s present or future condition such that his
or her continued life might be judged undesirable?
• Is there any plan and rationale to forgo treatment?
• Are there plans for comfort and palliative care?
Contextual Features (1 of 2)
• Are there family issues that might influence
treatment decisions?
• Are there provider (physicians and nurses)
issues that might influence treatment
• Are there financial and economic factors?
• Are there religious and cultural factors?
Contextual Features (2 of 2)
• Are there limits on confidentiality?
• Are there problems of allocations or resources?
• How does the law affect treatment decisions?
• Is clinical research or teaching involved?
• Is there any conflict of interest on the part of
the providers or the institution?

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