Pathophysiology

Introduction

Many diseases are mainly associated with aging. Some of the illnesses have direct symptoms and thus easily detected while some require intense medical tense to determine the problems. Some like the formation of floaters in the eye are also harmless, and individuals with the condition can live with them for years. On the other hand, others like CVA require immediate medical attention. Age-related diseases are prevalent, and whereas some of them have cures, some of them still lack cure, but medical experts have treatments that help reduce symptoms.

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Treatment of Vitreous Floaters

Mr. Gray’s condition is likely to have been enhanced by his old age. Given that he is 65 years old, the vitreous gel within his eye could have shrunk and pulled on the retina and detached the retina. The shrinking vitreous gel led to the formation of floaters which blocked some areas of Mr. Gray’s vision and the detachment of the retina led to the increase in floaters and h must have started to receive flashes in his vision. The best available treatment for Mr. Grays’ condition would be a vitrectomy, which is a surgery to remove some or all the vitreous humor from his eye (Lumi et al., 2015). He may also have to undergo a retinal detachment surgery.

 The symptoms of an irregularity in the vitreous humour within an individual’s eye has similar symptoms as those of Macular degeneration since they both develop gradually and without causing any pain. The common symptoms include visual distortion, need for brighter light when doing close work, reduced intensity of colors, and di9fficulty in identifying faces. The patient is also likely to experience blurriness of printed words, decreased vision in one or both eyes, and straight lines begin to appear wavy. The treatment plans include photodynamic therapy, which is a procedure used to treat abnormal blood vessels in a patients macula. Photocoagulation therapy is also applicable where a doctor seals abnormal blood vessels under the macula using high energy laser beams.  Another treatment procedure involves low vision rehabilitation whereby a patient works with eye experts to find ways to adapt to his changing vision.

Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA)

Ischemic strokes include thrombotic stroke and embolic stroke. A thrombotic stroke occurs when a blood clot blocks blood from reaching some parts of the brain. The clot may be caused by an artery which is affected by atherosclerosis, a condition in which the lumen of the artery becomes thick and narrow as a result of the formation of plaque (Litwinowicz et al., 2018). Thrombotic stroke mainly occurs at night or in the morning. Conversely, an embolic stroke occurs when a clot occurs somewhere else in the body and is then transported through the bloodstream. Upon reaching a point in which it cannot go any further, the clot blocks an artery carrying blood to the brain. The stages of atheroma development begin with the formation of neovascular vasa plaquorum, which supplies nourishment to the atheroma and helps it to grow over time. The pressure experienced in the vasa arteriolum is equal to that of the arteriole pressure and thus provides a positive perfusion pressure during systole (Sandgren et al., 2018). It also enhances intermittent blood flow through the vasa venolum thus returning blood to the nearby major veins. When atheroma becomes compatible with the artery, then the continued expansion of the adventitia stops. Any further growth of atheroma negatively impacts on the lumen leading to stenosis.

Mr. Quinn’s failure to respond to acetaminophen indicated that the headache could be as a result of a problem in the brain. The slurred speech and the numb feeling in parts of his body further confirmed that the brain was not receiving signals of changes in stimuli around his face and his right arm. The treatment methods for ischemic stroke involve restoring blood flow to an individual’s brain. This is mainly done through emergency treatment with medications, which is administered by giving the patient an intravenous injection of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). The drug dissolves the blood clot causing the stroke. Other emergency treatments, doctors may administer emergency endovascular procedures like delivering medications directly to the brain or removing the lump with a stent retriever.   

Parkinson’s Disease

 Experts attribute Parkinson’s disease to the interaction of host susceptibility and changes in the environment. Some cases are genetically linked. The symptoms of the disease include the loss of several neurotransmitters, the main one being dopamine (O’Hara et al., 2018). Parkinson’s disease is considered a complex neurodegenerative disease since it first affects the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve. It then changes the olfactory bulbs and nucleus, followed by the locus coeruleus, and finally affects the substantia nigra. After some time, the disease affects the cortical areas of the brain.

Common complications associated with the disease include slow movement, tremor, and rigidity. Other complications include sexual dysfunction, which is attributed to reduced dopamine levels, sleep problems which are caused by the effect of medications, physical discomfort, and adjustments to the internal body clock. Patients are also likely to experience urinary problems due to the kind of drugs a patient may be using, while others experience constipation which may result from muscle weakness, reduction in fluid intake, or side effects of medication.

There exists no cure for Parkinson’s disease at the moment. However, some treatments help relieve the symptoms and improve an individual’s quality of life. The treatments include medication, supportive therapies such as physiotherapy, and eve surgery for some people.  

Conclusion

The above conditions are mostly associated with aging people. Medical experts have a cure for most of them, but some are only controlled. It is, therefore, necessary that individuals learn of their symptoms and detect them early enough before they reach dangerous levels. Caretakers should also notify doctors immediately they realize adverse changes in patients suffering from the conditions.      

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