When analyzing people’s personalities, there are several different perspectives that may be relied upon. These perspectives include; psychoanalytic, humanistic, trait, social cognitive, and biological. These perspectives explain why a person behaves in the way that they do. However, psychologists must also realize that the way a person is brought up and the environment in which they are brought up also play a major role in determining their personality. These factors, combined with the aforementioned perspectives play a major role in determining how people grow to become who they are and who they will be.
The psychoanalytic perspective deals with experiences of people during their days of early childhood. This perspective also deals with the unconscious mind. According to Sigmund Freud, the things that go on in the unconscious mind are revealed in dreams or through the slip of the tongue. These can be used to find out what a person is really going through and how they really feel about certain situations. Using this theory, Freud came up with a structure of the mind that could be used to describe certain aspects such as the id, the ego, and the superego. He also revealed that these three components often have struggles and conflicts among them which could be resolved to form the personality of the person.
The humanistic perspective on the other hand, deals with a more aware psychological aspect. This perspective is concerned with individual goals and potentials and how they are reached. The perspective is more positive and encourages people to be the best versions of who they can be, as it takes on a more self-aware approach.
Third is the trait perspective. This perspective describes human personality by identifying, measuring and specifically describing certain specific traits. Psychologists believe that every individual possesses certain traits, in different degrees, that determine how they behave in their day-to-day lives. These traits and a combination of other factors are a great determinant of behavior. This is according to (Boundless.com, 2015). Overall, traits are an influence as to how a person acts.
Another perspective mentioned earlier in this essay is the social cognitive perspective. This perspective indicates the great importance of self-sufficiency and learning by observing. According to this perspective, people’s abilities to do certain things and to be self-efficient are determined by their belief in their own abilities. This therefore implies that the greatest motivation for our actions is our own selves.
Lastly, we have the biological perspectives. This perspective studies the behaviors of human beings and animals and focuses on biological causes for these behaviors. This perspective emphasizes on the belief that actions and behavior is determined by the genetics and the physiological make-up of a person or even an animal. The perspective examines thoughts, emotions and behaviors from a biological and physiological perspective (McLead, 2015). Thus, everything that is considered to be psychological must first be studies from its physiological perspective. This perspective also explains how emotions have a way of affecting human beings physically.
Is Personality Changeable?
A person’s personality continues to evolve and change constantly from when they are a child, to when they become a teenager and even well into their adulthood. The way that we think and how our mind works influences our personality. However, as we grow in life, we learn to take in different perspectives of life which may then affect the way we think, and consequently, out personality. Experiences we go through may alter, and often alter, our personality. These changes can explain how a person’s personality can turn from good to bad after a tough experience. For example, a girl who was generally nice as a child may grow up to become distrusting and mean if she is raised in an abusive home. This personality may be developed as a means to protect her from people that may seek to hurt her in the future.
However, some people’s personality does not change even as they grow up. It stays the same way as it has been from childhood. Even though our personality develops as a child, much of how we behaved as a child remains. For instance, those who are stubborn as children may grow up to remain stubborn even as adults. We may mature and grow but still maintain a child-like enthusiasm when we discover new things. Overall, what can be learnt from the studies on personality is that nurture and the environment in which we grow up can be a big influence to our personality. However, the inner person influences personality. A person’s genes, their inner thoughts, and their inner belief in them are also a big influence on their personality.
Boundless. (2015, July 24). Freudian Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality. Retrieved from Boundless.com: https://www.boundless.com/psychology/textbooks/boundless- psychology-textbook/personality-16/psychodynamic-perspectives-on-personality- 77/freudian-psychoanalytic-theory-of-personality-304-12839/
McLead, S. (2015, nd. nd.). Biological Psychology. Retrieved from Simply Psychology: http://www.simplypsychology.org/biological-psychology.html
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