Policy and Procedures Healthcare

Handwashing Procedure

The first compliance policy focused on hand hygiene and precisely hand washing. Keeping hands clean is a significant step that both clinicians, patients, and the general public can use to prevent the spreading of germs from one person to another and which eventually causes sicknesses. The failure to wash hands by individuals using soap and clean running water enhances the spreading of diseases and conditions. The Center for Disease Control recommends a specific way of washing hands to avoid spreading germs and thus getting sick. Different studies have proven the efficacy of the guidance below, which also contains justifications for each step.

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i.                    Wet your hands using clean running water, then turn off the tap and apply soap.

The CDC recommended clean running water because using water placed in a basin may cause recontamination from previous use (Deasy  et al., 2016). Unlike in standing water, running water ensures that the water is only used once, and thus, the germs are swept away with the moving water. Experts, however, suggest that if non-portable water also improves health and, therefore, should be used when necessary. The water can either be warm or cold, but the temperature does not have much effect on the removal of microbes. Turning off the tap while applying soap helps to save water. Soap application is useful since it contains surfactants that pick soil and bacteria from the skin (Palit et al., 2012). Research also indicates that soap motivates people to scrub hands more thoroughly and thus maximizing the removal of germs.

ii.                  Rub your hands with the soap to lather, including the back of your hand, your nails, and between fingers.

Lathering and rubbing cause friction, which facilitates the ease of removing dirt and microbes from the skin (Null et al., 2018). Microbes tend to be highly concentrated on the hands, especially between fingers and in the nails, and thus, hands require a thorough rubbing.

iii.                 Scrub your hands for more than twenty seconds

The hands should be scrubbed for atleast twenty seconds, but there is no limit to the time. The time depends on several factors, including the type, amount, and the environment in which an individual is washing hands (Null et al., 2018). Intense dirt and soil require more time to remove. For example, a surgeon who has just completed a surgery may need more time of scrubbing to reduce the risk of contracting or spreading infections while cooks preparing meals may take lesser time because they are exposed to fewer microbes.

iv.                Rinse your hands using clean running water to remove the soap and the accumulated dirt

When scrubbing the hands with soap, it picks particles of dirt, microbes, and disease-causing germs from different parts of the hand (Palit et al., 2012). Rinsing the soap helps grain the particles away, leaving the hands clean. Additionally, rinsing the soap helps to avoid skin irritation. Running clean water should be used to prevent creating contact between the clean hands and the already removed germs that would be present when using water in a basin. However, it should still be used if it is the only means available at the moment because it is healthier than not washing at all.

v.                  Use a dry towel to dry your hands

Wet hands increase the risk of spreading germs more than dry hands, and therefore, it is necessary to dry hands after washing them. Individuals should dry their hands using a dry towel or air them dry depending on availability and preference of an individual.

Diabetes Management Education

The second compliance policy focuses on educating society about diabetes. The guide below will illustrate the main areas of focus when conducting the program. The program was developed using the American Association of Diabetes Educators (AADE) 7 Self-Care Behavior Guidelines.

  1. Healthy Living

This step involves understanding the disease and treatment options to help patients and their families make informed choices regarding their lifestyle. Diabetes is a condition that occurs due to an imbalance between the demand and production of the hormone insulin in the body. The hormone insulin regulates the amount of glucose in a person’s blood and also stimulates the liver to absorb excess glucose in the blood. When an individual is in a fed state, more insulin is secreted, whereas when an individual has eaten for some time, insulin levels fall.  There are two types of diabetes, namely, type 1 and type 2. Type 1 diabetes occurs as a result of complete insulin deficiency, and it requires insulin therapy, and it cannot be controlled using insulin-stimulating oral drugs(Haas et al., 2012). A slight deficiency in insulin causes type 2 diabetes, and it responds positively to oral drugs, although, when they fail, the patients have to take insulin. The leading cause of fluctuations in insulin levels is obesity. There is also gestational diabetes, which is caused by excessive counter-insulin hormones of pregnancy.

  1. Healthy Eating

Eating healthily is one of the ways of avoiding or controlling diabetes. There exists no particular diet for diabetic patients. They should, however, eat diets that have less calories. They should also avoid eating excessive refined carbohydrates, especially sugary foods like sweets (Peros, 2016). Moreover, they should eat fewer foods containing saturated fats. The best diets for the patients should include fruits and vegetables, and foods with more fiber.

  1. Physical exercise to make them active

Diabetic patients, as well as all human beings, need to remain active and thus should engage in regular aerobic exercise. Some of the activities to participate in include walking, biking, and swimming. A 30 to 60minutes moderate exercises like walking and 15 to thirty minutes of vigorous activity in a day is very beneficial and helps patients to remain active (Haas et al., 2012).

  1. Monitoring patients’ blood sugar

Diabetic patients need to check and record their blood sugar levels regularly, while patients under insulin should check severally in a day (Haas et al., 2012). Patients should consult a doctor on the number of times that one should check. Constant checking helps to ensure that the levels remain within the required range and also helps determine dangerous levels.

  1. Taking medications and insulin therapy

For the patients who fail to achieve their target blood sugar levels with diet and exercise alone, doctors will have to prescribe diabetic medications and insulin therapy(Peros, 2016). There are various treatments, and thus, the doctor chooses the most appropriate combination depending on factors such as costs and the general health of the patient. The patients, with help from family members and society, should ensure adherence to the prescriptions.

  1. Problem-solving

Diabetic patients need to formulate problem-solving techniques to avoid getting into situations that may alter their blood sugar levels (Haas et al., 2012). Patients should consult with diabetic educators or psychologists to identify a suitable method of solving problems. Patients can be advised not to beat themselves up, analyze their days, learn from situations, discuss possible solutions, and to try new methods and to evaluate their impact.

  1. Healthy coping

Patients should learn to adopt work, social, and family roles. Anxiety and depression are common among diabetic patients, and thus, patients are encouraged to indulge in activities, such as socializing, that may reduce their chance of getting into depression(Haas et al., 2012).

  1. Reducing risks

In general, prevention is better than cure, and therefore, patients and society, in general, should avoid any conditions that may expose them to chronic diseases.

References

Deasy, E. C., Moloney, E. M., Boyle, M. A., Swan, J. S., Geoghegan, D. A., Brennan, G. I., … & Laughlin, M. (2016). Outbreak of Escherichia coli O157 Infections Associated with Goat Dairy Farm Visits—Connecticut, 2016. MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report, 65.

Haas, L., Maryniuk, M., Beck, J., Cox, C. E., Duker, P., Edwards, L., … & McLaughlin, S. (2012). National standards for diabetes self-management education and support. The Diabetes Educator, 38(5), 619-629.

Null, C., Stewart, C. P., Pickering, A. J., Dentz, H. N., Arnold, B. F., Arnold, C. D., … & Hubbard, A. E. (2018). Effects of water quality, sanitation, handwashing, and nutritional interventions on diarrhoea and child growth in rural Kenya: a cluster-randomised controlled trial. The Lancet Global Health, 6(3), e316-e329.

Palit, A., Batabyal, P., Kanungo, S., & Sur, D. (2012). In-house contamination of potable water in urban slum of Kolkata, India: a possible transmission route of diarrhea. Water Science and Technology, 66(2), 299-303.

Peros, J. P. (2016). Diabetes self-management education (DSME) program for glycemic control.

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