Presidential Policy Directive (PPD) 8 – National Preparedness
The aim of Presidential Policy Directive (PPD) 8 is to strengthen the resilience and the security of the United States through systematic preparation for threats posing the greatest risk to the nation’s security, including catastrophic natural disasters, pandemics, terrorism and cyber-attacks (DHS, 2015). According to FEMA (2013), PPD8 and its components policies guides on how the nation from private citizens to the federal level, prevents, protects against, mitigates the effects, responds to, and recovers from threats which pose the greatest risk to the nation’s security. The national preparedness shares the responsibility of government at all levels, individual citizens and the non-profit and private sectors, which all contributes to safeguarding the nation from harm.
DHS (2015) explains that the PPD-8 employs an all-of-Nation/whole community approach, incorporating its efforts across tribal, local, state, federal and territorial governments and with Individual, non-governmental, community, and private sector partners. This policy is important as it puts its focus on the whole community in integrating its preparedness activities. It also builds core capabilities in confronting challenges in the following areas: people, processes and products, enablers and coordination and management. PPD-8 uses a risk-based approach in the preparedness activities like the Threat and Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment (THIRA). The process helps the whole community in identifying and understanding probable vulnerabilities, which assists them in managing the risks. The approach also reduces efforts duplication as it builds risk assessments efforts which are already in place.
Another merit of PPD-8 is that it integrates its efforts through prevention, protection, mitigation, response, and recovery. The framework will provide a starting point, which understands the basics of the players and the associated activities, to assist everybody in building their operational plans. PHE (2016) explains that PPD-8 is important as it assesses the performance outcomes to track and measure progress. Performance is evaluated using a national preparedness report which is a baseline evaluation of the made progress towards the building, sustenance and delivering the National Preparedness Goal core capabilities. The national preparedness goal describes the 31 core capabilities that will assist in addressing the nation’s greatest risks. However, this policy have weakness, it is hard to integrate all the players in achieving the national preparedness goal.
FEMA (2013) explains that the PPD-8 policy provides sufficient guidance both to the planners and the managers of the National Preparedness. The guidelines are used to control the execution of the PPD-8 five frameworks. The policy describes critical responsibilities and tasks for planners and managers that will include resource, sourcing and personnel requirements. The plan synchronizes and integrates national-level Federal capabilities which support the plans at all levels of the government. However, this program may be insufficient for planners and managers due to the underdeveloped Capability Estimation Comprehensive Preparedness Guide. It is also hard for managers to build and sustain preparedness especially in creating a culture of preparedness for the nation, communities, and families.
According to FEMA (2013), the intended audience of PPD-8 policy are all the actors in the national preparedness plan. These are the actors that will assist the Nation in reaching its national preparedness goal. The National Preparedness System includes Secretary of Homeland Security who integrates other executive agencies and departments. It also includes the territorial, tribal, local and state governments, the non-profit and private sectors, and the public. This system will guide the domestic efforts of all state levels, non-profit and private sectors, and the public in building and sustaining the national preparedness goals’ capabilities. This system includes an interagency operational plan that will support each framework of national planning.
DHS,. (2015). Presidential Policy Directive / PPD-8: National Preparedness. Department Of Homeland Security. Retrieved from https://www.dhs.gov/presidential-policy-directive-8-national-preparedness
FEMA,. (2013). PPD- 8 Overview Presentations: Presidential Policy Directive 8 / PPD -8: National Preparedness. FEMA. Retrieved from https://www.fema.gov/media-library-data/20130726-1904-25045-2748/draft_ppd_8_eric_runnels_cfscc_20120928_fd_.pdf
PHE,. (2016). Presidential Policy Directive 8: National Preparedness. Public Health Emergency. Retrieved from https://www.phe.gov/Preparedness/legal/policies/Pages/ppd8.aspx
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