Public Health Systems


The study relates the public health system best practices to governance leadership and collaborative planning and also decision making. The ten essential health services are elaborated, and how they relate to the managerial process. Delivery of public health services cannot be achieved by the hospitals alone they need to partner with other movement organization. The study explains the best way to negotiate a collaborative partnership. There are different methods of mediation more so between the movement and the health service workers. The health sector is legally controlled sector. Health strict legal measures is a considerable factor as it constrains any change to fall under legal procedures.  Every service delivery career involving public requires ethics consideration before initiating a change. The study will detail how the ethics and law pay a major role in change initiation decisions in public health system. 

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There are several core function of public health, some of the core values include to protect and promote health. Public health cannot be compromised at any point even if it requires extremely high resources to maintain it. Public health management is mandated in meeting the health needs of a community. Every community has different health needs due to the different ecological condition of the place, geographical nature and disease prevalence in the area. The public health should systematically collect the data, and analyze it to come up with meaningful community health need.

Investigation of health hazard is the mandate of public health. The nature, the trend and the effects of certain prevailing disease need to be investigated. Some health problems have known triggers while others are emergent triggers (Donaldson, & Rutter, 2017). To control a health problem, one needs to understand the causing agents. The health management should offer investigative support and let them be known to the public to enable them to practice preventive measures.

Public health management has responsibility of analyzing the risk associated with a certain health problem. It becomes easier for the leaders within a community to lobby for government intervention when they have a full understanding of the risk, prevalence, and causes of a health problem. The analyzed data offers the base for the health workers determinant on how to handle the health need.

 Public health management has a role in persuade the government or other humanitarian organization to intervene and rescue the public from a health problem. The management in stands in an expert position and know how the problem is affecting the member of public, they understand the resources needed, and also have the final say on the medication procedures guided by the law and ethics.

Analyzed data helps the admin more so the government to prioritize on health risk as per risk involved. The government is mandated to cater all the communities’ health needs. The needs differ from one community to another. Also, the risk is associated with each need is significantly different. Some risks supersede others inattention and the threat they pose to the public members.  The seriousness and magnitude possessed by a risk make it be prioritized without sidelining the others. The management n health plays the role of advising the relevant authority on which to give first attention.

One of the stakeholders involved in health policies making are the health managers. They have the knowledge required to counter the needs, they have assessed and analyzed the situation to the community level, and also they understand the risk posed by the need to the people. Health management should propose a policy that meets the health objectives, propose an action that will enable the achievement of the goals. By so doing the health needs of the public will be prioritized and catered well.

The management in the health sector will be held accountable to the government and public in general for the management and utilization of the health resources dedicated to catering health needs. The management will help in acquiring and allocating available resources as per the priority of the community needs. The resources range from human resource, equipment, and other hospital facilities.

Implementation of the developed policy is a joint responsibility between the government authority and the health management’s staff. The government ensures that the policies are within a legal framework and takes immediate action on anybody who violates the policy. The human health resource confines themselves within the policy framework and works towards achieving the best out of the policy. The implementation allows the public to enjoy better health services.

Evaluation of the effectiveness of the policy solely relies on health management. After the provision of resources and responding to the community needs continuous assessments on the improvement of the people’s health is necessary. This will help to understand emergent issues on health, to determine where to improve and how to improve and also asses the applicability of the policy. The evaluation also helps to understand if the goals and objectives are being met or a change is needed.

Educating the public is another primary role in health management. The community takes care of their health needs if they understand the cause, effects and control measure on particular health need risk. The management with collaboration with leaders should educate the public on health risk and status within the community. The education will ease the work of the health personnel as the risk will be reduced. Illiteracy on health needs makes the public to be vulnerable to risk. 

The ten essential public health services are categorized into three namely health assessment, health policy development, and health assurance.  Under health assessment there three essential services namely: assessing health need of the community, investigating the occurrence of health effects and health hazards in the community, and analysis of the determinants of the identified health needs. 

Health policy development has three essential roles namely, Avocation for public health, building constituencies, and identification of resources in the community. The second role is prioritizing health needs according to risk levels.  The third role is planning and developing policies to address priority health needs.

Health assurance host four essential roles they include: Managing resources and developing the organizational structure, implementing the developed programs, evaluating programs applicability and educating the public on health needs. Health services are based on population, and the well-being of the whole population cannot be neglected. 

Evidence-based practices (EBP) is the integration of research evidence, patient values, and clinical expertise. The result of evidence-based practice is improved health care for the patients and the community health needs in general. The management, leaders and the government adopt the practice as a method of understanding the health needs with the aim of bettering their services.

Answerable clinical questions are formulated, basing them on the patient encounters, diagnostic history, therapy, and prognosis. The available evidence is deduced from the answered question. The evidence obtained is subjected to further scrutiny, this results to the appraisal of the evidence. The evidence is then implemented as per the recommendation and the best way possible. The results are evaluated to determine the effectiveness of the EBP (Brownson & Gillespie, 2017).  

In EBP the public is used to gain the information hence the patient are treated as the sample. It uses the questionnaire method to collect data. The questions vary from community to another and are based on the frequency of a health need diagnosis. Patients answer the questionnaire. The data is collected, analyzed and scrutinized by the experts. The expertise interprets the data to leaders and government representatives. The recommendations are given a trial putting into consideration the patient’s values. The government offers the required resources, and the leaders spearhead the application of the practices.

Hospitals and other health organizations in the United States are coming together, venturing into joint ventures, forming alliances and collaborating with the aim of bettering health services. Unfortunately, some of the collaborations do not meet the objective. This is due to poor leadership during and after collaboration. 

When collaborating with other stakeholders, it’s advisable to have knowledge of negotiation. Health care is not a necessary profit aimed business firm. Before collaborating the health leaders should understand what they need from the other partner. Understanding the roles of the other organization and what they play in the health sector is the priority for the health leaders — the outcome of the collaboration is determined by reason of partnership.

The mutual benefit areas should be discussed and the line separating each partner interest be identified. This will enable the partners to avoid overreliance on one another. The client’s interest should be put first. For the health sector, the health needs and specific patient’s health should be a center of concern. The area of priorities to be discussed should be listed and made aware among the involved parties. Use of expertise in the negotiation table is advisable. The expertise elaborate and makes the partners aware why a certain thing happens and the other cannot happen.

Possibilities, risk, and opportunity should be mutually agreed. Example, the leaders, should explain why the government is not possible to compromise the health of a patient for monetary value. The other partner interest in the health sector should be extensively discussed. This will eliminate the conflict of interest. A good partnership has a clear well manageable focus. Openly state the degree of partnership that the health sector can be able to manage.  The communication channel, leadership position and command hierarchy should be well negotiated for before striking a deal. The resources sharing and maintenance is another important negotiation point. The parties involved should mutually agree how resources obtained during or through partnership should be shared, maintained and in case of ploughing back to the sectors, the percentage should be known to all the parties.

Before partnering prepare negation by informing people involved in the negotiation process for them to prepare in advance. Choice of the right place and time for negotiations should be known to both parties. Allow the shareholders’ statement to control the discussion this will make the discussion to be issue driven and bring satisfaction to members (Traynor, & DeCorby, 2015).  Finding common ground is the purpose of negotiation the leaders should come up with the common interest and stand firm with it, assessing the possibility of future expansion of through building of concessions. The legal implications of partnership should be deliberated and the partnership written under legal basis.  

When a conflict arises between the stakeholders’ meditation practices should be applied to avoid further crises. Mediators are used in spearheading the negotiation process. Negotiation should be aimed at the restoration of peace. Voluntarily the conflicting parties should agree to manage the conflict either by collaboration (Sharma & Dhar, 2016). Negotiation is prepared carefully before the meeting, by both the conflicting parties and their constituencies. Agreements reached should be built on common goals and shared interests without bias. 

The mediator needs to be creative and offer solution wisely and let the parties deliberate on them without shifting the focus. The agreed option forms the base for prioritizing the identified conflict causes. The agreement should be made a process, not a one-time talk. Working solution package issue by issue with time brings back the coherence. 

A regulatory framework constrains the working decisions either by work guidelines, legal implication or even the ethical nature of the work. Health care is one of the most controlled sectors by the government and strict measure enacted constitutionally not only in the United States but also globally (Sankar, & Parker, 2017). Decisions made in public health sectors are to an extent regulated by the law.

Decisions in health sectors are considerably influenced by people’s ethics. Either the staff ethics, the patient ethic or the general belief of the society. Example it’s rare for a doctor not to offer medication to a patient because he/she do not have money to pay for the medication. The decision to offer the medication is influenced by the moral ethics of personality. The law might not force the doctor to offer medication, or it might be even against the hospital code, but it’s ethically justifiable to offer the medication

Rights of a patient are constitutionally guided before the health management decides on what to do they must reflect the law to check if they have violated any of the patient’s right. The code of conduct medical practitioner is well deliberated by the law. Any medic personnel must follow the law in every decision he or she undertakes. Failure to follow the law, legal actions may be taken against the personnel. Health care decisions intersect between the moral authority and legal framework (Sankar, & Parker, 2017).


Brownson, R. C., Baker, E. A., Deshpande, A. D., & Gillespie, K. N. (2017). Evidence-based public health. Oxford university press.

Donaldson, L. J., & Rutter, P. (2017). Donaldsons’ essential public health. CRC Press.

Sankar, P. L., & Parker, L. S. (2017). The Precision Medicine Initiative’s All of Us Research Program: an agenda for research on its ethical, legal, and social issues. Genetics in Medicine, 19(7), 743.

Sankar, P. L., & Parker, L. S. (2017). The Precision Medicine Initiative’s All of Us Research Program: an agenda for research on its ethical, legal, and social issues. Genetics in Medicine, 19(7), 743.

Sharma, J., & Dhar, R. L. (2016). Factors influencing job performance of nursing staff: mediating role of affective commitment. Personnel Review, 45(1), 161-182.Traynor, R., Dobbins, M., & DeCorby, K. (2015). Challenges of partnership research: insights from a collaborative partnership in evidence-informed public health decision making. Evidence & Policy: A Journal of Research, Debate and Practice, 11(1), 99-109.

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