SCU Cultural Competency in Healthcare Article Essay


The purpose of this assignment is for you to practice reviewing and analyzing articles that contribute to the healthcare industry. Reviewing healthcare literature and trends provides you with the opportunity to read about what was successful in the industry and how it was accomplished. It also allows you to analyze what was unsuccessful, how you can improve it, or at least how you can avoid repeating the mistakes of others.

In order to foster positive organizational culture, mission, and philosophy, it is important for the healthcare professional learn to respect and embrace cultural differences rather than being afraid of them. For this assignment, you will utilize the CSU Online Library to locate and choose a peer-reviewed article about organizational cultural competence and cultural differences that you may encounter in the workplace. You will then analyze the role that cultural competency plays in effective healthcare administration based on the article.

Save Time On Research and Writing
Hire a Pro to Write You a 100% Plagiarism-Free Paper.
Get My Paper

The article you choose must meet the following requirements:

  • be peer reviewed,
  • be at least five pages in length,
  • be less than 10 years old, and
  • relate to the concepts of cultural competence and organizational values.
  • As you read the article you choose for this assignment, consider the questions below.

  • What is cultural competence? Why is it important for healthcare professionals?
  • How do communication skills support organizational culture, mission, and philosophy and improve cultural competence?
  • How can the points presented in the article help the healthcare industry improve how its professionals relate to one another as well as the patients they serve?
  • Your critique must meet the requirements below.

  • Your critique must be at least three pages in length, not including the title and reference pages.
  • Identify the main topic or question and the author’s intended audience.
  • Comment on the article by sharing your opinions on what appears to be valid and invalid.
  • Discuss if you agree with the author’s assertions, and share why you do or why you do not agree.
    n By Brittney C. Bauer, PhD, and Neil Baum, MD
    In this article…
    In our increasingly diverse world, clear communication is critical. The authors offer strategies for interacting effectively
    with patients from dif­fer­ent cultural backgrounds.
    ­great “melting pot” in reference to the arrival of vari­ous nationalities on its shores. This meta­phor assumes that immigrants from diverse backgrounds transform their identities and
    assimilate to the norms, values, and beliefs of the dominant
    racial and ethnic group.1
    The immigration landscape changed over the past several
    de­cades, however, and so has the way we view the country’s
    interracial and multicultural composition. Whereas most immigrants in the early 20th ­century w
    ­ ere Caucasians of Eu­ro­pean
    descent, the waves of immigrants since the 1970s have come
    predominately from Latin Amer­i­ca and Asia and are more
    widely multicultural and multiracial.2
    This diversity has led to seismic shifts in the racial composition of the United States, with significant growth in major
    minority groups such as African Americans (13.4%), Hispanics
    and Latinos (18.5%), and Asians (5.9%).3
    As such, the notion that the culturally diverse immigrants
    “melt” and assimilate into the traditional American culture is
    not entirely accurate. Many modern immigrant groups nurture
    their specific racial, ethnic, and cultural identities and encourage their c­ hildren to carry on t­hese traditions in addition to
    integrating with their a­ dopted country.
    Thus, the “salad bowl” meta­phor is considered a more
    precise conceptualization of American immigration since the
    1970s: “…not only does the salad bowl meta­phor allow for the
    individuality of ethnic identities it represents, but it also paves
    the way for selective integration between ethnic groups based
    on their need to integrate in host socie­ties.”1,p114 This perspective suggests that the integration pro­cess is relational. The
    culturally diverse immigrants select which values and norms
    to adopt or adapt and, in turn, stimulate changes to the host
    nation’s own culture.
    Hence, healthcare must be adapted to be mindful and
    capable of treating culturally diverse patients —­something the
    medical industry has not accomplished, as evidenced by the
    ethnic and racial disparities in healthcare during the COVID-19
    While serving diverse patients’ health and wellness needs
    can pre­sent challenges, it is critical to society. To be culturally
    competent, physicians must increase their ability to communicate with and care for diverse patient populations.
    Cultural competency is relevant in the United States, with
    its workplaces’ and its schools’ increasingly broad array of
    cultural, racial, and ethnic groups. Cultural diversity is linked
    to several learning benefits, such as enhanced information,
    knowledge, and creativity.4 However, before we can learn
    from one another, we must have a level of understanding
    about each other.
    Cultural competency helps us recognize and re­spect “ways
    of being” that are not necessarily our own so that we interact with o
    ­ thers in a manner that builds trust, re­spect, and
    understanding across cultures. Cultural diversity also makes
    our country a more in­ter­est­ing place to live as ­people from
    diverse cultures contribute new languages, ways of thinking,
    knowledge, and broadening experiences.
    Nonetheless, b
    ­ ecause we live in an increasingly interconnected and multicultural world, this can generate prob­lems
    or misunderstandings based on a lack of cultural sensitivity
    and inadequate communication. Thus, gaining insights about
    other cultures can help us understand dif­fer­ent perspectives
    of the world we live in and dispel negative ste­reo­t ypes and
    personal biases.
    Through improved cultural intelligence and efforts to learn
    more about ­others from diverse backgrounds, healthcare providers can understand the culturally driven ways that ­people
    think, feel, and act. Demonstrating an understanding and
    sensitivity to other cultures w
    ­ ill help us overcome and prevent racial and ethnic divisions and provide better care for all
    patients. Given the racial and ethnic composition of the United
    States, it is unlikely that a physician ­will have a homogenous
    patient population; consequently, it behooves us to become
    more culturally sensitive and knowledgeable about the differences among our patients.
    Caring for diverse populations is a challenge for most providers
    and healthcare organ­izations. It is often necessary to bridge
    chasms related to language, religion, and traditions in caring
    for patients from culturally diverse backgrounds. While it is not
    pos­si­ble for us to review ­every culture in this article, we include
    several selected examples in healthcare from geo­graph­i­cally
    and culturally diverse areas.
    Note that the examples discussed below are intended to
    introduce the vari­ous aspects of ­these cultures but that they may
    not be representative of specific individuals with that cultural
    heritage. Healthcare providers should listen and learn from each
    patient and not assume or act on a broad national ste­reo­type.
    Therefore, we also provide resources for prac­ti­tion­ers interested
    in learning how to better manage patient care for t­hose who
    are culturally diverse from the providers and their staff.
    Providing care for patients with Hispanic or Latino
    heritage. Patients with Hispanic or Latino heritage may place
    a premium on personal relationships. With this in mind, asking about the patient’s ­family and interests before focusing
    on health issues generally promotes rapport and trust. T­ hese
    patients may be reluctant to discuss emotional prob­lems with
    their doctor; careful and sensitive probing over multiple visits
    might be necessary before the patient shares their feelings
    and emotions.
    Large extended families are common in ­these communities, so several generations of the ­family may accompany the
    patient for a medical appointment. The patient may even
    request that multiple f­amily members be pre­sent during the
    Modesty is impor­tant to Hispanics and Latinos, especially
    among older ­women. Healthcare providers should try to keep
    older ­women covered whenever pos­si­ble. Given that ­these
    cultures tend to have a higher ac­cep­tance of hierarchical order
    ­ omen may
    and established gender roles,5 more traditional w
    defer to their husbands in decision-­making. Hence, it is impor­
    tant to find out whom they may want to consult before making healthcare decisions.
    Since it is common for f­amily members to request that a
    fatal diagnosis not be shared with the patient, early in the
    patient-­provider relationship, ask the patient and immediate
    ­family members how much information and with whom they
    want it shared.
    ­Family members may resist hospice for fear it w
    ­ ill emphasize the fact that their loved one is ­dying and thus encourage
    the individual to give up hope or w
    ­ ill to live. The f­amily of a
    terminal patient may also be reluctant to remove life support
    lest it is seen as encouraging death. Alternatively, if the patient
    or f­ amily believes the illness is “punishment by God,” life support may be considered interfering with the opportunity for
    patients to redeem their sins through suffering.
    Hispanic and Latino patients tend to exhibit a present-­time
    orientation or “live for the moment” mentality, which could
    impede medical compliance and follow-up care. For example,
    it may be necessary to explain the need for preventive medi­
    cation (e.g., related to hypertension or high cholesterol levels)
    or the importance of finishing antibiotics even a­ fter symptoms
    have subsided.
    Among Hispanic patients who follow traditional practices,
    “fat” is considered a sign of being healthy. Many Mexican
    foods are high in fat and very high in salt; thus, nutritional
    counseling may be necessary for p
    ­ eople who have diabetes
    and t­hose who have high blood pressure. It is often helpful
    to connect compliance with medical treatments to something
    they care about personally, such as dancing at a d
    ­ aughter’s
    wedding or seeing a grand­child.
    Traditionally, it is common for matriarchs in the community
    to advise new ­mothers to avoid cold temperatures, bathing,
    and exercise for six weeks postpartum. Similarly, they advise
    that a baby with a fever be bundled up, countering the medical advice and cooling mea­sures the healthcare practitioner
    suggests to the m
    ­ other.
    Including the grand­mother in patient teaching is helpful, because she may have the most influence on day-­to-­day
    healthcare issues, especially if she lives with the f­ amily.
    A chubby baby boy is considered healthy in Hispanic and
    Latino cultures; consequently, additional instruction regarding
    diet and diabetes education is often warranted. “Belly button
    ­binders,” which some may use to prevent an “outie,” should
    be part of a discussion. Rather than advising caregivers not to
    use them, instruct them about making sure the area is clean
    and that the b
    ­ inder is not too tight.
    In ­these cultures, many diseases are thought to negatively
    affect c­ hildren, including mal de ojo (“evil eye”), caída de la
    mollera (fallen fontanelle, often caused by dehydration), and
    empacho (stomach pain). The “evil eye” is generally believed
    to be caused by envious compliments. Healthcare providers
    should touch the child when giving a compliment, especially
    if the child is wearing a red string with a large brown seed
    (“deer’s eye”), denoting belief in the evil eye.
    Ask Hispanic patients about their use of herbal remedies.
    For example, manzanilla (chamomile tea) is used to treat colic,
    American Association for Physician Leadership® n Physician Leadership Journal
    and it is generally safe and sometimes helpful. However, greta
    (a yellow to grayish-­yellow powder) and azarcón (a bright
    reddish-­orange powder) are used to treat empacho (stomach
    pain), and contain lead, so they can be dangerous.6
    If providers discover patients are using ­either or both, it
    is impor­tant not to embarrass patients or make them feel
    that they made a ­mistake. Instead, ask what remedies, if
    any, the patient has tried in a way that implies that all of
    your patients attempt self-­treatment before seeing the doctor. Explain that you need to know what t­hose treatments
    ­were to avoid prescribing something that could result in a
    harmful interaction.
    Implying that patients are being criticized for trying home
    remedies or seeing other healers may lessen their trust and
    rapport with their doctor; proper cultural sensitivity and communication can circumvent adverse reactions
    Providing care for patients with Southeast Asian heritage.
    Patients of Southeast Asian heritage value hierarchical authority
    and have g
    ­ reat re­spect for elders in their culture.5 When relatives
    accompany a patient for a medical appointment, it is considered respectful to address the eldest person pre­sent first —­
    especially if the elder is a male. Adult c­ hildren are expected to
    care for their aging parents and ­will often accompany them
    to the appointment.
    Often, a first-­or second-­generation family member ­will be
    fluent in En­glish and serve as the translator for the patient;
    however, it is impor­tant to note that the translator may not
    be the decision-­maker of the f­amily. Among older generations, men are traditionally the decision-­makers, and e­ ither
    the husband or eldest son (e.g., if his f­ ather is deceased) may
    take on the role.
    It may be difficult to obtain an accurate health history
    from older individuals, as many Southeast Asian patients ­were
    rarely told the names of illnesses, medicines, or procedures
    performed in their native countries. Both male and female
    patients tend to be modest to the extent of avoiding some
    medical screening procedures such as pap smears, PSA testing,
    and colonoscopies. Thus, clinicians may need to take extra
    time to explain the purpose of t­ hese screening tests and make
    ­every effort to protect the patient’s modesty.
    If a patient is diagnosed as terminal, f­ amily members may
    wish to shield them from that fact. Upon admission or when
    the need arises, healthcare providers should ask patients to
    identify how much information they want to be given regarding their condition and to whom the information should be
    provided. In most of Southeast Asia, diagnoses are typically
    given to the ­family first; they decide w
    ­ hether to tell the patient.
    Southeast Asians practice many dif­fer­ent religions or belief
    systems. For example, many who are Buddhists believe in
    reincarnation; ­others practice Chris­tian­ity; some are traditional
    animists who believe that spirits inhabit objects and places
    and that ancestors must be worshipped so their spirits do not
    harm their descendants. Each of t­ hese belief systems comes
    with its own unique practices that can influence a patient’s
    medical treatment plan and compliance.
    Traditional patients may wish to consult a shaman or a non-­
    medical healer about their diagnosis or treatment plan. It is not
    unusual for a patient to ask the doctor to share their findings
    with the shaman and receive the shaman’s opinion. Alternative therapies like cupping and coining (“coin rubbing”) are
    traditional remedies. Physicians should be careful not to confuse marks left on the body by ­these practices with forms of
    abuse. C
    ­ hildren may wear “spirit-­strings” around their wrists
    or necks, which should not be cut or removed ­because some
    consider ­these to carry the c­ hildren’s life-­souls.
    Fi­nally, some patients might have concerns about blood
    being drawn. They may fear it w
    ­ ill sap their strength, cause
    illness, force their souls to leave their bodies, or ­will not be
    replenished.6 It requires tact and understanding to encourage
    ­these patients to accept this kind of medical testing.
    Providing care for patients with Rus­s ian heritage.
    Patients with Rus­sian heritage tend to value power distance
    (e.g., be­hav­iors represent status roles) and avoid uncertainty
    (e.g., needing detailed background and contextual information).5 Formality is of g
    ­ reat importance and is a sign of re­spect.
    Providers can demonstrate their re­spect by referring to their
    Rus­sian patients as “Mr.” or “Ms.” and never assuming that
    using the first name is appropriate with t­ hese patients.
    Further, individuals with Rus­sian heritage prefer direct eye
    contact and communication with their healthcare providers; in
    contrast, t­ hose from M
    ­ iddle Eastern or Southeast Asian cultures
    avoid direct eye contact as a sign of deference and re­spect.
    Most Rus­sians have a “prepare for the f­uture” mentality
    and put a high value on punctuality. T­ hese patients may arrive
    early to appointments to be seen first. As such, providers
    might consider giving Rus­sian patients the first appointment
    of the day to avoid making them wait. Unlike other cultures,
    the sex of the provider is usually not an issue with Rus­sian
    patients. Still, they may prefer to have a ­family member of the
    same gender pre­sent when receiving personal care (e.g., with
    male doctors and female patients).
    In the past, it was common for physicians to withhold an
    ominous diagnosis from their patients, but that is no longer considered ethical. Rus­sian patients, however, prefer this
    approach and often want to withhold fatal diagnoses from
    the patient. Suppose the physician believes that withholding
    a medical diagnosis or information may be an issue in caring
    for a Rus­sian patient. In that case, they might consider asking patients how much information they want to be given
    regarding their condition or with whom they would like to
    share the information.
    Rus­sian patients, especially el­derly individuals, may not like
    taking large numbers of pills. Providers may improve compliance
    by spacing medi­cation dosage so that as few pills as pos­si­ble
    are given at one time. Notably, patients who participated in the
    Rus­sian healthcare system typically are uncomfortable choosing
    among vari­ous treatment options ­because ­these patients may
    have been treated ­under a system that offered no choices —­the
    patient did what­ever the doctor recommended.7 For this reason,
    the physician ­will be viewed as an authority figure, and patients
    are likely to seek their direct recommendations or advice.
    Providing care for patients with ­Middle Eastern heritage.
    Patients with ­Middle Eastern heritage are relationship-­oriented
    and value long-­term and trusted associations. Effective rela-
    tionships with ­Middle Eastern patients often involve two-­way
    communication. The provider may need to share personal
    information for ­Middle Eastern patients to feel comfortable
    sharing information about themselves. Consequently, healthcare providers may be expected to take a personal interest in
    their patients and their lives.
    As with all high-­context cultures that rely on implicit and
    non-­verbal communication, it is particularly impor­tant to be
    familiar with their hand gestures, volume or tone of voice,
    and facial expressions. For example, for many Ira­ni­ans, the
    “thumbs up” signal is a rude gesture. Understanding ­these
    nuances in culture is crucial to fostering effective and meaningful interactions.
    ­Middle Easterners have a past and pre­sent time orientation,
    meaning that they honor the past and live in the moment.
    ­Human interaction is given a higher priority than “clock time,” so
    physicians must emphasize this expectation if being punctual for
    appointments is impor­tant to the medical practice’s schedule.
    ­These patients are family-­oriented; the collective f­ amily is
    seen as being more impor­tant than the individual. Providers
    should expect many ­family members to participate in the care
    of the patient.
    This concern about the care of a ­family member should
    guide physicians to include ­family members in patient education. The entire immediate f­amily may participate in
    decision-­making, but traditionally the eldest male is the
    final decision-­maker on behalf of the patient. ­Women typically
    defer to husbands for decision-­making regarding their own
    and their ­children’s health. In fact, the husband may answer
    questions that are addressed to his wife.
    Direct eye contact with members of the opposite sex may
    be interpreted as a sign of sexual interest, particularly from
    females to males, so female patients may avoid direct eye contact with male providers. ­Middle Eastern patients ­will often not
    be comfortable with healthcare providers of the opposite gender, considering that sexual segregation is extremely impor­
    tant. The medical practice should assign same-­sex caregivers
    whenever pos­si­ble. Female patients should be ensured modesty with adequate coverings during exams and procedures.
    Islam is a dominant force in the lives of many M
    ­ iddle Easterners, so patients of the Islamic faith must have the opportunity to pray facing east t­ oward Mecca several times a day.
    Furthermore, Muslims may not take medi­cations, eat, or drink
    from sunrise to sunset during Ramadan. This period of fasting,
    self-­sacrifice, and introspection is based on the Islamic calendar and occurs at a dif­fer­ent time each year. Some Muslims
    may be exempt from daytime fasting if they are ill or pregnant.
    Providers should be aware that observant Muslims do not
    eat pork, which is considered haram (impermissible or unlawful). Medi­cations delivered in pill or capsule form often contain
    gelatin, which is typically derived from pork. They are also
    expected to abstain from alcohol, which may be found in
    cough medicine. For ­these reasons, M
    ­ iddle Eastern patients
    may prefer injections that are halal (permissible or acceptable)
    and which they believe are often more effective.
    Many followers of this faith have a fatalistic attitude regarding health and believe that every­thing is in Allah’s hands (e.g.,
    Inshallah, meaning “God willing”), making their health-­related
    be­hav­ior of l­ittle consequence or importance. When a M
    ­ iddle
    Eastern patient is diagnosed as terminal, ­family members may
    wish to shield them from that fact. As previously mentioned,
    it is impor­tant to ask patients to identify how much information they want to be given regarding their own condition or
    to whom the information should be provided.
    ­These patients may not want to plan for death, since ­doing
    so can be seen as challenging the ­will of Allah. Physicians
    might approach them by demonstrating their understanding and respectfully asking, “Some [Muslim] families feel that
    making such decisions is interfering with the ­will of Allah. Is
    this a belief you share, or do you want to begin discussing the
    decisions that need to be made?”
    Notably, Muslims may not allow for organ donation since,
    according to Islam, the body should be returned to Allah in the
    condition in which it was given (­whole). For the same reason,
    they may be reluctant to allow an autopsy, but they w
    ­ ill accept
    a post-­mortem examination if required by law. In other cases,
    ­those who are in f­ avor of organ donation say that b
    ­ ecause it
    can save a life, it falls ­under the Islamic doctrine that “necessity
    allows the prohibited.” Physicians should approach t­ hese topics carefully to discover the wishes of the patient and family.
    Damp, cold drafts, and strong emotions may be thought
    to lead to illness. For example, the “evil eye” (envy) is believed
    to cause illness or misfortune. Amulets worn to prevent misfortune include the hamsa (a hand with a blue stone in the
    palm) or a round blue stone with a blue and white “eye” in
    the center.6 Given the importance of cultural nuances to health
    and wellness outcomes, providers and their staff need greater
    understanding of the impact of cultural diversity in healthcare.
    Improving Physician and Staff Cultural Competency
    Physicians and staff must understand the impact of cultural
    diversity in healthcare. Cultural differences can be a source
    of frustration for both patients and healthcare professionals and may result in poor health outcomes. By practicing
    cultural competency when caring for patients from diverse
    backgrounds, healthcare providers can improve health outcomes, increase patient satisfaction, and reduce frustration.
    Developing the cultural intelligence of healthcare
    providers. Working with ­people from dif­fer­ent backgrounds
    can be difficult due to cultural barriers that cause misunderstandings and detract from efficient and effective interactions.8
    Earley and Ang9 proposed a multifactor concept of cultural
    intelligence (CQ), defined as an individual’s capability to deal
    effectively in situations characterized by cultural diversity. CQ
    has four dimensions: meta-­cognition, cognition, motivation,
    and be­hav­ior.
    Meta- ­cognition refers to the control of cognition and is
    comprised of the pro­cesses that individuals use to obtain
    knowledge. Cognition refers to the a­ ctual knowledge of cultural differences that an individual acquires or learns through
    international experience or education. Motivation is the desire
    to initiate and direct energy ­toward learning how to function effectively in an unfamiliar context. Be­hav­ior is an individual’s capability to exhibit appropriate verbal and nonverbal
    actions when interacting with ­people from diverse cultural
    American Association for Physician Leadership® n Physician Leadership Journal
    backgrounds.9 Past research on CQ has developed a cultural
    intelligence scale to mea­sure the level of cultural competency
    for individuals and employees.10
    In hiring new employees, a medical practice might mea­sure
    applicants’ existing levels of CQ in order to determine which individuals would be the best fit for an increasingly diverse patient
    population. Beyond recruitment and se­lection of ideal personnel,
    the medical practice can develop higher levels of CQ in their
    existing staff. CQ can be learned, developed, and enhanced
    through exposure to other cultures via educational opportunities
    (e.g., cultural sensitivity training and workshops) and international travel (e.g., employee retreats and conferences abroad).11
    ­These training experiences result in better care for culturally
    diverse patients and growth opportunities for the practice.
    interpreter to follow up immediately with written information and instructions in the patient’s native language.
    The following are suggestions for using an interpreter:
    Bridging language barriers in healthcare. The most fundamental and essential tool to improving the healthcare of
    culturally diverse patients is communication skills. Often patients from dif­fer­ent backgrounds and cultures do not speak
    En­glish or have ­limited En­glish abilities. The patient may not
    be able to rely on a ­family member or friend to serve as a
    translator and interpret or convey medical jargon accurately.
    The translator may not understand the need to interpret
    every­thing the patient and/or doctor says and may summarize
    the information instead. Medical interpreter ser­vices that the
    practice can call on at short notice are readily available in most
    medical communities. We recommend choosing a practical
    and eco­nom­ical method for the medical practice.
    When pos­si­ble, the translator should conduct face-­to-­
    face translations instead of telephone or virtual visits with an
    interpreter. This enables the interpreter to convey nuances
    observed in non-­verbal communication and help build a
    relationship between the patient and the care providers. If
    a practice has large numbers of patients with ­limited En­glish
    proficiency, healthcare providers might consider scheduling
    all patients with a common language in blocks of time. An
    interpreter could come in for that period and help with multiple patients. The cost for professional interpreters varies from
    approximately $20 to $26 per hour, but that can fluctuate
    based on the location and experience of the interpreter.12
    Another interpreter option is to employ bilingual staff
    members. If professional interpreters are not feasible for the
    practice, hire trained and competent dual-­role bilingual staff
    members for roles such as receptionist or medical assistant, or
    train the existing employees in needed language skills. ­These
    staff members can provide interpreter ser­vices and perform
    their regular duties in the clinic, saving the cost of paying an
    outside interpreter and making the ser­vice more accessible.
    If neither of ­these options is ­viable, the practice could use a
    remote interpreter ser­vice. Telephone interpreter ser­vices can
    be a quick and con­ve­nient way to accommodate patients with
    ­limited En­glish proficiency when in-­person ser­vices are unavailable. This is also a g
    ­ reat option for infrequently encountered
    languages or for practices that have only an occasional need
    for such ser­vices.
    Many telephone ser­vices offer instant access 24 hours a
    day, seven days a week, and charge by the minute. A
    ­ fter
    the encounter, the standard procedure should be for the
    ■ Use short sentences and speak slowly and clearly,
    ■ Ask the patient for permission to use an interpreter.
    ■ Provide additional time for the visit.
    ■ Speak briefly with the interpreter outside the exam
    room to explain the purpose and goals of the visit.
    ■ Sit facing the patient and speak directly to him or
    her, not to the interpreter. If using an interpreter
    over the telephone, conduct the visit in a private
    room with a speakerphone or a second handset to
    preserve confidentiality.
    avoiding the use of medical jargon.
    ■ ­After speaking, pause to allow the interpreter to
    translate for the patient.
    ■ Ask the patient to repeat key information back to
    you to ensure understanding.
    ■ Rec­ord the name of the interpreter in the chart.
    Understanding and Respecting Cultures
    To provide culturally appropriate care, caregivers must learn
    about the patient’s ethnic and religious background. Some
    might believe that it is “po­liti­cally incorrect” to ask about
    cultural or religious beliefs in a medical examination; however,
    understanding t­ hese cultural aspects is vital to the success of
    the interaction. The key to success is in the way it is done.
    If healthcare providers ask patients about their culture with
    respectful curiosity and genuine interest, most patients are
    delighted to be the “chief explainer” about their culture.
    Take advantage of this excellent opportunity to market
    medical ser­vices to ethnic populations. For example, one of the
    authors (NHB) has several referring physicians from Vietnam
    who have many Viet­nam­ese patients. To build a relationship
    with his Viet­nam­ese colleagues, he contributed articles for
    their Viet­nam­ese dental and medical journals.
    To demonstrate cultural inclusivity, NHB and his staff learned
    a few words of Viet­nam­ese to use with their patients. Being
    able to say “hello,” “thank you,” and “good-­bye” in another
    language is not a difficult task, and it goes a long way in helping the doctor and staff to connect on a ­human level with the
    local ethnic community. If some words and terms are difficult
    to pronounce, asking the Viet­nam­ese doctors and patients
    for some verbal coaching is also a g
    ­ reat way to build rapport.
    By understanding and respecting the unique healthcare
    needs of ­those with cultural differences, the doctor and the
    practice w
    ­ ill find that they can bridge the cultural divide.
    Focusing on cultural diversity in patient populations may pre­
    sent the potential for stereotyping, which must be avoided. It
    is impor­tant to understand the ecological fallacy, which argues
    that inferences cannot be made about an individual based
    on the group’s aggregated, national-­level cultural be­hav­iors.
    Gaining cultural competency allows healthcare providers to
    treat individuals of diverse backgrounds in an inclusive rather
    than exclusive manner.
    It is never appropriate to make sweeping statements and
    refer to every­one in a certain culture as “being aggressive”
    or “always avoiding eye contact.” For instance, although he
    or she knows that certain cultures generally prefer to keep
    social distance, the culturally competent practitioner does not
    assume that every­one from that cultural background wants
    to socially distance. Culturally­competent prac­ti­tion­ers use
    the cultural knowledge they already have, then modify their
    perspective and be­hav­iors based on their interactions with
    the specific patient being treated.
    Using ­these guidelines gives healthcare providers a “best
    first introduction,” but if they are not entirely correct, the
    provider ­will have the cultural intelligence to change their
    approach. We hope t­ hese insights w
    ­ ill allow you to know your
    culturally diverse patients in light of the broad generalizations
    that we have provided. Vive la difference!
    Brittney Bauer, PhD, is an assistant professor
    of marketing and holder of the Chase
    Minority Entrepreneurship Distinguished
    Professorship in the College of Business at
    Loyola University, New Orleans. Her primary
    research interests focus on social judgments,
    psychological attachment, and marketing
    Berray M. A Critical Literary Review of the Melting Pot and Salad Bowl
    Assimilation and Integration Theories. Journal of Ethnic and Cultural
    Studies. 2109;6(1):142–151.
    Martin P. Trends in Migration to the U.S. Population Reference Bureau.
    May 19, 2014. www​.­prb​.­org​/­resources​/­trends​-­in​-­migration​-­to​-­the​-­u​-­s.
    United States Census Bureau. Quick Facts: United States. United States
    Census Bureau. 2021. www​.­census​.­gov​/­quickfacts​/­fact​/­table​/­US​/­IPE120219.
    Nederveen Pieterse A, Van Knippenberg D, and Van Dierendonck D. (2013).
    Cultural Diversity and Team Per­for­mance: The Role of Team Member Goal
    Orientation. Acad­emy of Management Journal. 2013;56(3):782–804.
    Hofstede GH, Hofstede GJ, and Minkov M. Cultures and Organ­izations:
    Software of the Mind, 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-­Hill;2010.
    Galanti G-­A. Hispanic/Latino. Understanding Cultural Diversity in Healthcare.
    2016. www​.­ggalanti​.­org​/­hispanic​-­latino.
    Anderson P, Evanikoff del Puerto L, and Sigal E. Rus­sians. In JG Lipson
    and SL Dibble, eds. Culture & Clinical Care, 415–430. San Francisco: UCSF
    Nursing Press;2005.
    Lievens F, Harris MM, Keer EV, and Bisqueret C. Predicting Cross-­Cultural
    Training Per­for­mance: The Validity of Personality, Cognitive Ability, and
    Dimensions Mea­sured by an Assessment Center and a Be­hav­ior Description
    Interview. Journal of Applied Psy­chol­ogy. 2003;88(3):476–489.
    Early PC and Ang S. Cultural Intelligence: Individual Interactions Across
    Cultures. Stanford, CA: Stanford Business Books;2003.
    10. Van Dyne L, Ang S, and Koh C. Development and Validation of the CQS:
    The Cultural Intelligence Scale. In Handbook of Cultural Intelligence
    (pp. 34–56). Routledge;2015.
    11. Crowne KA. What Leads to Cultural Intelligence? Business Horizons.
    2008;51(5), 391–399.
    12. Ku L and Flores G. Pay Now or Pay ­Later: Providing Interpreter Ser­vices in
    Health Care. Health Aff (Proj­ect Hope). 2005;24(2):435–444. https://­doi​.­org​
    Neil Baum, MD, is a professor of clinical
    urology at Tulane Medical School in New
    Orleans, Louisiana, and author of The Three
    Stages of a Physician’s Career-­Navigating
    From Training to Beyond Retirement
    (American Association for Physician
    Leadership, 2017).
    American Association for Physician Leadership® n Physician Leadership Journal
    Copyright of Physician Leadership Journal is the property of American Association for
    Physician Leadership and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted
    to a listserv without the copyright holder’s express written permission. However, users may
    print, download, or email articles for individual use.

    Place your order
    (550 words)

    Approximate price: $22

    Calculate the price of your order

    550 words
    We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
    Total price:
    The price is based on these factors:
    Academic level
    Number of pages
    Basic features
    • Free title page and bibliography
    • Unlimited revisions
    • Plagiarism-free guarantee
    • Money-back guarantee
    • 24/7 support
    On-demand options
    • Writer’s samples
    • Part-by-part delivery
    • Overnight delivery
    • Copies of used sources
    • Expert Proofreading
    Paper format
    • 275 words per page
    • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
    • Double line spacing
    • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

    Our guarantees

    Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
    That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.

    Money-back guarantee

    You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

    Read more

    Zero-plagiarism guarantee

    Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

    Read more

    Free-revision policy

    Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.

    Read more

    Privacy policy

    Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.

    Read more

    Fair-cooperation guarantee

    By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.

    Read more
    Live Chat+1(978) 822-0999EmailWhatsApp

    Order your essay today and save 20% with the discount code LEMONADE