Shirley Anita St. Hill Chisholm Runs for Primary Election In 1972

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Shirley Anita St. Hill Chisholm Runs for Primary Election In 1972


During the time when women were politically discounted and considered subservient, Shirley Chisholm bid for presidency in 1972, standing for the people who needed a voice of change. In the middle of 20th century, women experienced challenge in achieving equal treatment in political, economic and social institutions in the America society. Shirley voice challenged the traditional women role leaving many amazed of the capacities that women have in making political decisions. She faced a lot of criticism, discrimination and prejudice due to her color and mostly to due to her gender. Her political courage in the historical odds earned her the name and status of political icon. She rose from a nursery school teacher, day care manager, congress woman and her last achievement was running for presidency in the primary election of 1972. She fought her way to the position with her outspoken mind and courageousness. She refused to be pigeonholed to a subcategory based on her gender or race, because she understood her barriers in political life were based on these two factors. She was the Blacks and women illumine to run for the presidency- President Obama and Hillary Clinton.


This is an analysis paper of 1972 primary election. The paper uses primary and secondary sources. These sources include newspapers, memoirs, books, journals, internet and articles. 


During the beginning of 20th century, women were considered as outsiders to the formal political life structures-holding elective office, serving on juries and voting- and were subject to a variety of discrimination that defined them as secondary citizens. On the course of the century, there was a dramatic move of the American women in all public life aspects- popular culture, mass media, professions, labor-force participation, and politics. Deeply divided by region, ethnicity, race, religion and class, women identify less with each other, resulting in women’s collective identity- women sense of solidarity- which has waned and waxed. Twice in this century, there was a significant feminist activism wave that led to a surge change of women status. 

According to Evans (2016), in 1900, the legal standing for women was governed fundamentally by their marital status, making them to have few rights. For example, married women had no separate legal rights identity from their husbands. They had no right to sue or be sued, lacked biological reproduction rights, no right to pursue a career and no right to own property on their own. According to the Supreme Court, under the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution, women were not ‘‘persons’’ that guarantees equal protection of the law. The conditions of women at the beginning of 20th century created the change seeds that bore fruits later in the century. The expansion of education to women and professions was the foundation of massive suffrage movement that commanded the most fundamental right for woman citizenship. 

These realities represented an underlying ideology of men and women that assigned public realms of politics and workers and women’s defined place in the society were domestic. Women were confined to their homes, and their community responsibility was raising dutiful daughters and virtuous sons. Deutsch (1981) explains that before the end of 19th century, women had pushed away from their domestic boundaries both by necessity and choice. This led to the invention forms of politics that were outside the electoral arena by forming voluntary associations and other institutions with aims of responding the unmet social needs.

Shirley Chisholm Primary Election in 1972

Shirley Bibliography

On November 20, 1924, Shirley Anita St. Hill was born in Brooklyn, New York. She was the first daughter of Charles St. Hill a Guyana factory laborer, and Ruby Seale St. Hill a Barbados seamstress. During her childhood years, Shirley was living in Barbados with her maternal grandparents where she received British Education. The most obvious manifestation of her roots in West Indies was the minor clipped British accent which she retained throughout her life. Chisholm was taken to Brooklyn public schools where she graduated with higher marks.

Accepted to Oberlin and Vassar colleges, Shirley on scholarship attended Brooklyn College, and in 1946, she graduated with a B.A in sociology from Cum Laude. Chisholm worked as a nursery teacher between 1946 and 1953 and later as a director of two daycares centers. She got married in 1949 to Conrad Q. Chisholm, a private investigator, and later after three years, she earned M.A from Columbia University of early childhood. She was elected in 1964 to the New York state legislature, and she became the second African woman to serve in Albany. 

Shirley Political Life

Curwood (2015) explains that Shirley Chisholm established a lot of firsts during her decades-long political career. She was an educator-turned-congresswoman and community activist of Bedford-Stuyvesant in New York. Shirley was also elected to the House of Representatives as the first black woman and was the Congressional Black Caucus founding member and in future, the Congressional Women’s Caucus. After some years, of securing a position in Congress, she became the first woman, and the first black woman running for president of the United States using a major political party. Through her courage, she broke the barriers, and she illumines people like Hillary Clinton and President Barack Obama.

Her career in politics’ possibility came into her mind after Louis Warsoff, who was her political science professor suggested that her analytical mind and debating skills were a foundation for a political life. Chisholm (2016), explains that while pursuing her degrees, she joined the Harriet Turban Society where she listened to more people rather than her father on the Whites oppressions to Blacks, feelings of pride, and Black racial consciousness. Her primary goal in politics was to fight poverty and ignorance at all society levels. With the support of Black and progressive White’s voters, she formed the Democratic Club as an organization for community mobilization and social change.

In her memoirs, Shirley has explained the effects of her battles to her political approach.  “My frustrations at trying to operate through channels and following the prescribed procedures, and failing to get any action, have radicalized me.” Freedman and Jones (2008), continues to explain that she later realized that being elected as a woman was an uphill. She explained in her memoirs that she met with hostility from the start of the campaign due to her sex and color. On her door to door canvassing, she would meet with an older man who would exclaim “‘Young woman, what are you doing out her in this cold? Did you get your husband’s breakfast this morning? Did you straighten up your house? What are you doing running for office? That is something for men.‘”

Stature wise, Shirley was short but significant in accomplishments. She was always determined to win and, her trailblazing efforts made women like Carol Mosley Braun and Barbara Jordan to advance in the politics field. The actions of Chisholm’s accelerated the opening of political process doors and the power corridors so that, Browns and Black women would start sharing meaningful inputs into the power halls that controls the lives of Americans. Deutsch (1981) stated that between 1960 and1970 was an indication of a new beginning for the majority of Americans who had observed classism and racism.

A majority of women with color experienced the triple or double bind that was in America at the beginning of 1964, and they had a chance to participate in America politics. In 1964, Patsy Mink of Hawaii, first Asian-Pacific-American woman, was elected to Congress. Shirley Chisholm of New York was elected to Congress as the first African -American woman in 1968, and Ileana Ros-Lehtinen of Florida elected in 1989 as the first Hispanic-American woman to Congress.  The US culture on traditional perspective on women compelled many people to believe that women had no direction, but were supposed to be led for them to follow.

Marble (2005) explains that Chisholm was long interested in politics especially expanding women roles in politics, and in 1964, she ran for and was elected in New York State Assembly. She was well known in Brooklyn by 1964, and despite her lack of support from liberal establishments, she mounted a successful campaign for the seat. During her campaigns, she stressed that her people had requested her to run. The political courage of Shirley Chisholm in the historical odds face earned her the political icon status. In Chisholm speech, ‘‘For the Equal Rights Amendment’’, she pursued to secure the equality of women, where she created a case for the constitutional amendment. During her campaigns, she used her voice which was strident and was forced by her West Indian accent. She uses her voice to champion the rights of the disadvantaged- the poor, women and racial minorities. 

She focused her political activities on the constituency; protect the domestic worker, introduction of bills that supports poor children scholarships, preserving tenure for teaching women while in maternity. The redistricting in 1968 opened an opportunity for her to run in her home district for U.S. House of Representatives. Chisholm used the slogan “Fighting Shirley Chisholm ‘‘Unbought and Unbossed,” during her campaign for Congressional seat, against three Democratic Party male counterparts, and later against James Farmer, a renowned civil leader in general elections. James Farmer was famous in organizing the Congress for Racial Equality and the Freedom Riders movement in the early 1960s.

There were high expectations that James would win, but by a margin of 2-1, on November 5, 1968, Shirley staged an upset victory. Her antiestablishment campaign success was attributed to her ability to address her Puerto Rican voters in Spanish and her widespread support from women. Shirley Chisholm was fluent in Spanish and had knowledge of her District people, making it possible to be elected as the first black woman to Congress, owning the seat until 1963 and later as the first Black woman for presidency. Marble (2005) explains that from 1964 to 1968, Shirley as an assemblywoman who spearheaded legislation that provided day care centers that were state-funded and domestic workers unemployment insurance.

Early in her congressional career, Chisholm lived up to her independent thinking reputation. She was a junior member of the Congress and was assigned an Agricultural Committee seat specifically on a rural development and subcommittee for forestry. They used the seniority system that was developed as a protection for senior members from the full control of party leadership. Only a few junior members objected to their assignments because surviving in the institution by pleasing the leadership, as they were responsible for assigning assignments. 

However, Chisholm was unhappy. During one of her meetings with the speaker of the House, John McCormack, she stated, “I guess they heard a tree grew in Brooklyn.” At that moment, she requested a change which was rebuffed, and while she rose for a protest, the senior male members were recognized instead of her. This illustrated the gender and racial discrimination that women faced as compared to their male counterparts. However, her persistence assisted her in gaining floor by pointing the discrepancy of the number of whites and blacks in the population and the number of people representing them in the Congress. This indicated that the representatives of the black were far less and she requested a position where she would present her constituency interests. She risked her support and goodwill of her new colleagues, persevered and was eventually appointed the Veteran’s Affairs Committee. 

1972 Presidential Elections

Chisholm (2008) explains that during a time when women were politically discounted and subservient, one woman Shirley Chisholm was bidding for the 1972 presidency and stood for those who required a voice for a change. Her voice challenged the traditional role of women leaving many people asking; can women make major decisions in political matters? Shirley was the first black congresswoman representing the newly reapportioned House district of U.S. centered in Brooklyn New York. Moore (2003) states that, Chisholm in 1968, was elected because of her Bedford–Stuyvesant neighborhood roots; and was in national limelight catapulted by her outspoken personality, gender, and race. In 1972, Chisholm campaigned for the Democratic presidential nomination which was an enormous symbolic undertaking. 

During this presidential election, the campaigns were in full swing, and President Richard Nixon was running and seeking for a second term. Against the Black Power movement, backdrop of domestic unrest after eight Vietnam War years and second-wave feminism, Chisholm was determined to make history for the second time. She campaigned ardently and hard opposing the Vietnam War, and she was on the idea of calling the troop back home. Many studies suggest that her campaigning from the start was very significant by revealing her political process. Chisholm refused to be pigeonholed to a subcategory based on her gender or race, by understanding all the barriers she was facing due to these factors. Lewis (2016) states that during Chisholm BBC interview in 1972, she said, ‘‘Being black is a handicap in the United States because racism has been very inherent in [our] institutions.” She explained that the African Americans were tired of tokenism, and expounded that there were more than ready to share in the American Dream that everyone was speaking about.

Her 1972 campaigns were more symbolic than real, and the iron lady utilized her platform to address issues that are still relevant in the life of America today. These issues included political dissent, drug abuse, prison reform, and gun control. Shirley was able to garner 10% of delegates’ votes without withdrawing her candidacy until the Democratic convention ended. In July 1971, Shirley started exploring the possibility of running for presidency. On January 25, 1972, she formally announced her candidacy, becoming the first African-American woman and the first woman to seek the Democratic Party nomination for the highest nation’s office. Several Blacks and White women were running with minor party tickets. In 1964 Sen. Margaret Chase Smith (R. Me) was campaigning for nomination using Republican Party but Chisholm was Democrats double first. 

During the campaigns she proclaimed that she was neither a female nor Black candidate- although she was a proud female and Black- but the people’s candidate. This was well illustrated on her speech ‘‘I am not the candidate of black America, although I am black and proud. I am not the candidate of the women’s movement in this country, although I am a woman, and I am equally proud of that. I am not the candidate of any political bosses or fat cats or special interests. I stand here now without endorsements from many big name politicians or celebrities or any other kind of prop. I do not intend to offer to you the tired and glib clichés, which for too long have been an accepted part of our political life. I am the candidate of the people of America. And my presence before you now symbolizes a new era in American political history’’. She is the lady who started the most remarkable campaigns known in history. Falk (2016) explains that as the first woman candidate for president especially the first Black candidate to seek that seat through a major party- Democratic Party she made the first steep climb ahead.

When she was launching her campaigns, she told her supporters that, she was standing to repudiate the American people ridiculous notion that they could not vote for qualified candidates because she is not a male, or because he is not white. She had a hard primary road where she faced multiple assassinations attempts. She was severally sued to have her appearances I televised debates but her strong self-fought her way out to 12 state ballots.

Chisholm (2010) states that throughout that July in Miami, during the Democratic Convection, Shirley pursued her quest for delegates and votes. The leading Democrats political ambitions were focusing intensely on two issues. The first issue was to beat Richard Nixon incumbent and the second issue was to end Vietnam conflict. However, Chisholm efforts were written off by many people as a futile process of self-promotion while her candidacy was marginalized by others as doomed and trivial. Her opponents were against her move especially due to her color and gender. 

The most severe attack was when some individuals went to her campaigns as potential spoiler eroding their candidacy as well as taking away her votes. However, Chisholm was persistent and continued asserting her right to run, pointing out that other Democratic candidates represented only a small portion of the population- white males. This was because; the total number of women and the blacks was far more than that of white males. Her courage steered her move to run for the State’s Presidency. 

Many incidents occurred during Shirley campaigns, but in this paper, only three will be illustrated. The first incident comes from the California race. There was a televised debate between major candidates, and the only invited were George McGovern and Hubert Humphrey, who were both in the race and left out Shirley and other candidates. Chisholm took a step to court and won her right to participate in the debate. When she was asked which candidate she was supporting, she deferred sticking by her principle at that time. She was also asked who her team would be together with the second person on the ticket. She was later faced with a question from the moderator if she thought she was interested and qualified as vice presidential candidate, where she replied back, “I could serve as the President of this country. Believe it or not; that’s why I am running.”

The second incident occurred after Governor George Wallace was shot while campaigning on May 15 in Michigan. George Wallace who was known for his famous pro-segregation policies was more than amazed to receive a visit in the hospital immediately after the assassination from Shirley Chisholm. On one of her memoirs, Shirley explained “He said, What are your people going to say?’ I said, ‘I know what they are going to say. But I wouldn’t want what happened to you to happen to anyone.’ He cried and cried,” she recalled. Another last example is sprouted from Chisholm during the President Endorsement by the Blank Panthers. Many politicians were shunning their support, but Chisholm did not see any problem with Panthers participating because they would rather participate in political processes instead of fighting against it.

A majority of people were more than unsatisfied and continued to wonder why Chisholm was still contesting. From the onset of Miami to its Eve, she did not have the hope of winning the nomination. This is because irrespective of her supporters, she could not dislodge McGovern’s from his high lead. However, Chisholm did not waver off from her strategy of building a coalition for women, working class and blacks by taking their voice to the convection through a substantial delegate’s bloc that would bring influence to the platform. During her campaign, Chisholm was fond of Frederick Douglass quotes: “Power concedes nothing without a demand. It never did and it never will.” Her reason for running was to give a voice to the requirements of the individuals that were debarred from the walls of power.

According to Freedman (2008), Shirley was elected as top ten most admired women in America during the 1974 Gallup Poll. She was ahead of Coretta Scott King, Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis and was in a tie with Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi at position sixth. As the presidential bid was enhancing Chisholm national profile, it also caused controversy with her House colleagues. One of the major effects of her candidacy to the House was the split of Congressional Black Caucus (CBC). 

The majority of the Black men felt that she had betrayed their group’s interest, by failing to consult them while creating a coalition for women’s, welfare recipients, White liberals and Hispanics. She noted that there was perverse gender discrimination across racial lines. According to her speech, she explained that Black politicians were equal with White politicians and expounded that the women issues were deep. Another issue she faced during her presidential campaign was straining from her female colleagues who were Members in the Congress, especially Bella Abzug who endorsed McGovern instead of Shirley.

Chisholm was used to doing the unusual, for example, she runs for the presidency after serving the House for three years, something that no one else had done before. The funny aspect was that she did not run with expectations to win or increases her Congress clout. Instead, she ran to give her voice for the citizens that major candidates were omitting to mention. She was among the four founders of National Women’s Political Caucus that was molded in 1971. During one of her speeches, she explained that she had faced more discrimination because she was a woman more than because of her color. She also faced critics from Black men that she was not addressing the racial and discrimination aspect of Blacks as most of her attention was on Women rights issue.

She continuously stressed the importance of diversity at the government highest levels. This was backed up by her explanations that if the Government was a Democratic form of Government, it would wholly represent the different American society segments. In this she indicated, “I feel that the cabinet and the department head of this country must have women, must have blacks, must have Indians, must have younger people, and not be completely and totally controlled continuously by white males.” Four years to her presidential run Shirley Chisholm became a member of the House of Representatives and was assigned to an Agriculture Committee which was less visible. This was followed by her protests that argued that she was better useful tackling issues that were relevant to her Urban District constituents. She backed these arguments by explaining that there were only nine blacks in the Congress and should be used as effectively as possible.

The first state where she actively campaigned was Florida, mostly because it had strong women’s movement, youths, and Blacks. Another reason was that majority of Florida people were willing to organize for her. However, she faced challenges in this State because she lacked enough money to hire for professional. She ended up relying on volunteers who were continuously competing against each other rather than having togetherness. Chisholm used to attend to Congressional duties in Washington that limited her Florida campaign tours to only two before the March 14 primary. There was a significant issue busing in schools at the Southern state, “to correct racial imbalance” that made her ambivalent. Despite having enthusiastic and large crowds wherever she talked, she could only achieve a four per cent of the vote. 

Whenever she would get onto the ballot, she would conduct her campaigns. She was so influential and would get volunteers to stir and set up speaking events for her. She campaigned in Massachusetts, North Carolina, Minnesota, California, Michigan, New York and New Jersey. There were states like Wisconsin, where she had the ballot but had never had time to campaign or visit. In Minnesota, she won delegates with only a single appearance. In some other states, she received votes via delegate candidates or write-in votes for example in Illinois. She was voted for the presidency by people from fourteen states in different fashions or ways. After campaigning for six months in eleven primaries, she achieved twenty-eight delegates who were committed to voting for her at the Democratic Convection.

One special case was California, where the law of state gave all its delegates to McGovern who was the winner, despite the rules of the Democratic Party that required the votes to be apportioned.  Chisholm was third and acquired a tenth of McGovern votes which entitled her to 12 of the California’s delegates as demanded by national rule. The state law primary was later challenged by that of the Convection. In Chicago, Shirley made only one appearance on March 6 where she represented her speech to Malcolm X Junior College situated on the western side of the city. 

Her two delegate candidates in Chicago were running in the South and North Districts, but they did not find a free venue. On the South side, Jesse Jackson’s Operation PUSH refused to invite her to speak there even though it used to accommodate the best speakers of liberal persuasion (white or black) over in the country. The primary elections of Illinois were a week after that of Florida. It was in June when the Committee Credentials voted that the national rules caused trumping in the state law of Illinois and California and that there was to be a seating of the challenged delegations. 

However, the recommendations and reports of the committee went on Monday night in July before the full convention, the California’s recommendations were reversed, and all the delegates of McGovern were seated. The decision made McGovern to be the nominee lock and all the candidates’ speeches and nominations after the decision were just but window dressing. At the convection and the primaries, Chisholm received stronger supports from the grassroots Blacks and feminists than she got from those identified as leaders. She received support from Parren Mitchell (MD) and Reps. Ron Dellums (CA). Gloria Steinem and Betty Friedan were running as her delegates, but they lost.

Other Congress Members and the prominent people, both feminists and Blacks opposed her candidacy or ignored it. Curwood (2015) states that on March Chisholm was speaking in Gary, Indiana where she stated that she felt like an intruder, to National Black Political Convention. However, in July at the Democratic Convention, her meetings were jam-packed with feminists. During her caucus of the black final meeting, the delegates voted to support her. Nevertheless, those who were voting and attending were not delegates, and those who were, were not bound by the decision of the caucus.

There are many comments that her campaigns were symbolic which she dismissed. In American history at that time or even today, the societal perception is that she could not be elected to that position because a majority of the American citizens could not elect an African-American woman to its highest office. As for this candidate, she did not view herself as a symbol. On the contrary, she explains her actions, ‘‘I’m running for president because I want to win. And I want to govern. And I want to change the direction of this country.’’

She was not the first woman to run for United States presidency. There was Victoria Woodhull in1872 and Margaret Chase Smith in 1964. Like Smith, Chisholm mounted a strong campaign to compete in the primaries. Her name during the primary ballots was in 12 states, getting more delegate votes than any woman before her and until the times of Hillary Clinton in 2008,” These statistics thus reveals that she was a forerunner who displayed pretty spirited fight.

Chisholm’s forward thinking and gutsy strategy was a positive move for Democrats that they used to wrest the Republicans for long. She was also a known leader and was receiving support from the women’s liberation movement which was led by her New York friends like Bella Abzug and Betty Friedan- where she straightened the convection. According to Curwood (2015), Chisholm was also a strong racial equality advocate and received the support of active political black men mostly those who were serving in the Congress as they were Congressional Black Caucus members. These two groups felt like they were on a historical moment verge. 

According to Nicholas (2016), Shirley addressed each team at convection through outlining her strength strategy via a block of votes that were prone to brokering for representation but, their choice was the candidate they thought would win.  This made them throw their votes behind McGovern. At the first ballot, Muskie and Humphrey released their votes to support McGovern. The action made the Shirley Chisholm leverage strategy that she worked hard for so long to collapse. McGovern was later overwhelmed by Richard Nixon during the general elections, who resigned later after two weeks due to the disgrace of Watergate scandal.

Freeman (2005) in his work, explains that after it was over, Chisholm said that if she had a chance to do it again she would, but in a different way. Her campaign was unprepared, under-financed and under-organized. Her calculations revealed that she had spent and raised $300,000 between the time she started floating with the running idea in 1971 and after the last vote was counted in the Democratic Convection in July 1972. This was exclusive what her campaign had raised $2,000 and spent on her behalf and much more by other local campaigns. By the next Congress Presidential elections, the Campaign Finance Act had been passed that required reporting, certification and careful record keeping among other requirements. This was an effective way to end the grassroots presidential elections like those held in 1972.

Reasons Why America Was Not Ready For a Female President

Falk (2010) describes that women have continuously been suffering from a male dominated world from time in memorial. For example, politicians used to oppose suffrage due to fear that women would support Prohibition and constraints on the party machines power, stronger business regulation and social welfare laws and lower utility rates. Sensing and threatened that the society in America was on the verge of change due to abilities demonstrated by women, there was a reversion by the powerful men back to the gender distinctions they would sell back to the public. Repeatedly, women have always been painted as weaker than men, dependent on male protection and unable to make tough decisions on their own.

During the middle of 20th century, women experienced challenge in achieving equal treatment in political, economic and social institutions in the America society. They were subjected to prejudice and harassment, suffered from severer accountability of personal conduct and rendered similar for low wages than their male counterparts. Women suffered from these mistreatments, despite their education, abilities, and qualifications. Falk (2016) states that by 1970, the disparity had increased Shirley a political, icon then took the step in the battle against discrimination.

After losing the 1972 presidential, Shirley Chisholm continued to serve in the House for ten more years, retiring in 1982 after serving for seven terms in Congress. However, even after retirement, she continued to be actively involved in politics. It was at this time she became the co-founder of National Political Congress of Black Women, chairing it from 1984 to 1992. She was also lecturing at Mount Holyoke College in Massachusetts, and wrote her autobiography ‘‘Unbought and Unbossed,” that was derived from the slogan she used in her Congress campaign. She had no children, and married twice, first in 1949 to Conrad Chisholm, and on February 1977 they got divorced. She later remarried in the same year to Arthur Hardwick, Jr., who later died in 1986. In 1991, she moved to Florida where she died at 80 years at her home in Ormond Beach on January 1, 2005. 

It remains questionable that even after more than40 years from the time she entered Democratic Party on the presidency primary of United States, there has been no election of a woman of color as a president. Shirley if she were here today would still enter to the heart of state due to her unique style. She had a way to capture the minds and hearts of the Americans, holding her head up with courage. When she was asked how she would wish to be remembered, her comment was, “I’d like them to say that Shirley Chisholm had guts.  That’s how I’d like to be remembered.”  


A long line of black women have followed Shirley Chisholm paths; Yvonne Brathwaite Burke (D-CA), Barbara Jordan (D-TX), Cardiss Collins (D-IL), Katie Beatrice Hall (D-IN), Barbara-Rose Collins (D-MI ), Eleanor Holmes Norton (D-DC), Eva Clayton (D-NC), Donna F. Edwards (D-MD) and others. Shirley Chisholm’se courage in politics in the historic odds’ face, earned her the political icon status. She is still treasured and welcomed as a spokesperson for youths, blacks and women who have benefited from her trenchant and outspoken way on the White males’ status quo and power base. As a woman and African American, she experienced both sexism and racism throughout her career making her a voice to be used by both feminist and civil rights movements.

After several advances in the protection of women and legal status, changing the mindset of the society remains a challenge. During the first 20th century decade, women have achieved, political, economic and social disparity but the inequality specter still lurks. Speaking of women as equal as men is now acceptable in the society in all aspects of American society. However, while viewing at women outwardly, they have achieved equality in practice and theory. Nevertheless, there are still private convictions who doubt that women are actually equal as men.


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