SRR711 Feasibility Study : Solution Essays

Question:

The research questions are discussed below:

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  • What are the factors affecting the unaffordability of houses in Australia?
  • How to implement modular off-site construction for mitigating challenges in affordability of houses in Australia?
  • What is the role of government in the implementation of modular off-site construction?

What are strategies recommended for improving the concept of modular off-site construction?

 

Answer:

Introduction

The construction industry has been gaining its importance in the world. Various industrialization projects have been started by different governments of countries all over the world. As mentioned by Mostafa and Chileshe (2017), the Australian government has faced various changes in the construction industry. There has been the massive change from traditional construction method to modern techniques of construction. These methods have changed the scenario of the construction industry in Australia. This research paper discusses the concept of modern off-site construction in Australia. However, there are many problems and challenges faced by these methods in the country. People in Australia have been facing housing unaffordability problem and house planning problems. This paper focuses on the changes made in the use of land for use planning projects by various companies in the country. The implementation of the planning policies have been maintained by the government and appropriate strategies have to make for mitigating various challenges. Several improved engineering solutions are provided for constructing buildings with quality. It also provides a call from the Commonwealth Government for including Minister’s Portfolio responsibility to coordinate role of government agencies as buyers of services in industry. As mentioned by Pour Rahimian et al. (2017), the Federation and establishment of the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901 have been implementing its agreement between leaders of six founding states and citizens. Various agreements and treaties among citizens and government of Australia that have helped in maintaining a positive scenario including housing for each individual in the state.

Various key functioning changes in Commonwealth-State relations in 20th Century including have included shift in income tax collection from Commonwealth and Federal governments to take responsibility in social. However, Australian Government has not been involved in the Australian Constitution for refereeing to different referendums for providing constitutional recognition. As commented by Arashpour et al. (2017), various reforms have been detected in the Australian government regarding the construction industry. These changes include growth in human resources, amalgamation in LGAs at a local level.

Various factors that are responsible for housing unavailability problems have been discussed properly. Various advantages of implementing off-site construction have been perceived from the research paper. The contribution of the Australian government in implementing and promoting MOC in Australia have been explained in this research paper. The contribution of different organizations including NHSC, HIA, COAG and AUHRI have been focused on the research. The literature review has focused on the concept of the Modern Off-Site Construction and advantages of using this construction method. The contribution of various organizations has been discussed in the literature review using various graphs and figures. This research has used secondary approach for collecting data. Data and information related to research topic have been collected from online journals, articles, government databases and different online statics related to the research topic. Data and Information have been properly analyzed by using qualitative data analysis method.

Background to Off Site Construction 

Off-Site Construction consists of various elements including Planning designing, assembling and transportation of building materials on the site. The use of the traditional construction method has been creating various obstacles including increasing time and costs. As commented by Seffar and Abbott (2017), the use of off-site construction has been maintained by using the variety of scales, system and materials. According to Demographic Survey 2014, various challenges related to the housing unaffordability in Australia have created only 39 housing markets in the state. The 10th Annual Demographic International Housing Affordability Survey has ranked Australia the second in the severely unaffordable housing market (Demographia, 2014). Different factors have affected the Australian government in maintaining a proper implementation of modern off-site construction in the state. These factors include lack n cultural reform and inefficient performance of construction companies. The IT has been revolutionized modern offsite construction in the market. Management of the tasks and elements of the projects have become easy for the managers.

Revisiting legislative bodies on MOC

As suggested by Jiang et al. (2017), law and order of Australian government have been a major issue in the construction industry. The Construction Industry Research & Information Association (CIRIA) conducted a research project named as ‘Adding value to construction projects through standardization and pre-assembly’ in 1999, which focuses on value gained from the application of OSM was reviewed. As stated by Smith and Quale (2017), the involvement of law and orders in the Off-Site construction have helped in monitoring issues and challenges prevailing in the industry. The involvement of government in this concept has helped in providing better chances of successful implementation of a modern off-site method in the construction industry. As commented by Guerin (2017), the planning strategy Melbourne 2030 is reform of metropolitan planning, which was a number of same metropolitan plans in the Australian state capital cities. As commented by Newman 2014, this include Sydney’s City of Cities (NSW Department of Planning 2005), Perth’s Network City (Department of Planning and Infrastructure 2004), Adelaide’s South Australia’s Strategic Plan and Brisbane’s South East Queensland’s Regional Plan (Queensland Government 2005) (Government of South Australia 2007).

 

A pathway towards housing affordability through MOC

The primary problem in this research is the unavailability of houses for people in Australia. As stated by Lia and Leung (2017), the NHSC reported that house rents in capital cities of Australia in the second quarter of the year 2012 have been increased by 3.2% with compare to 2011. However, the average earning of citizens in Australia has been increased by 57%. On the other hand, the house rent has been increased by 69% in same period. This creates financial problems for citizens of Australia. The implementation of modern Off-site construction has created the secondary problem from the union and loan sanction from various funds and banks in Australia. Therefore, this has created the problem for construction companies of Australia related to the financial crisis. Therefore, this research has helped in identifying factors creating problems and issues during implementation of modern off-site construction in Australia. The involvement of Australian government in the implementation of modern off-site construction have been reflected from this research.

Figure 1: Average weekly earnings and house rental expenses

(Source: NHSC, 2013)

Figure 2: Housing Affordability Deteriorates

(Source: Howard, Turban and Hurley 2016, pp.79)

The bar chart shows that variation in the housing index in Australia from 2002 to 2015. The chart shows various fluctuations in the housing index of Australia. Situation during 2008 to 2011 have been a worst period in the state. Recently, country has been facing with the housing unaffordability problem. Therefore, there is a need of change in the traditional concept of construction of buildings. There has been slightly change in the percentage of housing index from 2003 to 2015. Housing index is a term that denotes the price changes of houses in society. It reflects the change in the value of the residential houses (Li, Li and Wu 2017). Issues related to housing unaffordability have been increased to an extent as the bar chart shows negative value. This figure describes about the average weekly earnings and house rentals of the people in Australia. Overall income and expenditure of an individual describes about the savings. Therefore, it is important to analyze that the earnings has been increasing from 1995 to 2011. However, the expenditure has also increased. Therefore, the balance between the income and expenditure has been fluctuating over the time. This shows that individuals have been facing housing unaffordability problems in Australia. This figure depicts that house rents in Australia have been gradually increasing with the development of the country. Therefore, an average individual has not been able to mitigate problems related to housing unaffordability.

Figure 3: Framework

(Source: Created by Author)

This figure describes about overall work of the research. This figure outlines overall research methods including the primary research problem. This figure depicts the aim and objectives of the study for mitigating the issues in the housing unaffordability problem in Australia. The overall process of the study has been shown in the research method diagram. The objectives include identifying factors affecting housing unaffordability in Australia, role of government and other organization in implementing MOC and recommending strategies for improving it. The connection of Modern off site construction with all the components has been provided. The Concept of conventional building and its connection with the primary problem. The figure illustrates the use of the different laws and acts for mitigating the primary problem including housing unaffordability. Various organization including AHURI, HIA, ACIF, HNA and NHSC have contributes in the development of the modern offsite construction in Australia.

Research Objectives 

The objectives of the research are as follows:

  • To identify the factors affecting the unaffordability of houses in Australia
  • To implement modular off-site construction for mitigating challenges in affordability of houses in Australia
  • To identify the role of government in implementation of modular off-site construction
  • To recommend strategies for improving the concept of modular off-site construction

Research Structure

Figure 4: Research Structure

(Source: Created by author)

Influencing legislation bodies on MOC

The conventional buildings in Australia are small in spaces and rooms. Conventional buildings have been constructed by using the traditional method of construction. This has created various issues and challenges in the construction industry (Wong, Zwar and Gharaie 2017). Different organization have contributed to the modern off-site construction including Housing Industry Association (HIA), Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute (AHURI), National Housing Supply Council (NHSC), Coalition of Australian Government (COAG), Demographia and Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) and Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW). The Commonwealth Bank of Australia (CBA) and Housing Industry Association (HIA) have helped in providing index ratio for measuring a ratio of median household disposable income. However, this index has increased by 5.1% in 2013 (Woo 2017).

Contribution of Australian Government and other organizations to MOC

The Australian Government have participated in the implementation of MOC in the country. The Australian government have helped the construction company by providing funds for different investors in the market. The government have also started various projects in order accelerate construction works in Australia. As stated earlier, different organizations have helped in contributing to the modern off-site construction in Australia. The government of Australia have implemented various laws and policies in different construction sites. This has helped in monitoring progress of projects in the state. It has helped in improving the performance of the projects. As commented by Goh and Loosemore (2017), planning and designing play an important role in maintaining proper strategies for a project. The Report of the Building the Education Revolution Implementation Taskforce (BERIT) that was published on July 2011. This report highlights the advantages of the government sector being an informed client.

Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute

Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute aim at forecasting future housing subsidies that are accompanied by various projected demographic changes. Its focus on challenges on various trends for fiscal sustainability of housing policy. This project was able to undertake an international comparison with policies that are designed or subsidizing supply of appropriate rental housing of low-income people in Australia. It affects the National Rental Affordability Scheme (NRAS) on the lower end of the market in Australia (Dalton et al. 2013). A government can help in maintaining a proper research on a number of people living in a particular area. The government can organize survey in a locality for retrieving data and information regarding the unavailability of houses for people. It helps in providing permits for housing and provides residential property to low-income people in Australia. The residential property of Australia is a long-run process for portfolio diversification benefits. It helps in establishing financial intermediary for collating non-profit housing borrowing requirements for creating institutional investments. AUHRI helps in providing private investment in the provision of affordable housing increased over years. It maintains a correlation with construction department for developing MOC in the locality (Li, Li and Wu 2017). The use of the modern techniques is used in MOC for constructing buildings and complexes for people living in the locality.

Housing Industry of Australia

HIA has helped in assisting various policy documents for developing strategies for improved health of people in Australia. The HIA influence assists in developing policy and decisions for benefit of individuals in Australia. It provides information for decision makers in an organization. HIA limits in transport facility in Australia. Housing industry of Australia report helps in resolving duplicity and integrating mitigation measures (Mueller et al. 2015). HIA focuses on negative impacts on development and looking from the future perspective of low-income people in Australia. HIA describes positive health impacts of individuals in Australia. The local unions in Australia used to create problems in gathering feedback for the people regarding their health conditions. Therefore, the government have to take control over these local unions and create strict laws and policies against them. Therefore, the development of the MOC can be stabilized in the state with the help of HIA.

Health Need Assessment

Health Need Assessment report helps in providing the report of human needs for acquiring quality health conditions. This organization helps in providing incentives for acquiring quality health to low-income people in Australia (Delany et al. 2017). It provides permissions for building houses in the state under various conditions. The HNA organization propagates policies related to permitting for building houses in the state. The Australian Government helps in creating a health report of the people in the state by organizing survey in the state. The survey report might help in gathering knowledge about the health condition of the people and number of people living in a particular locality. This report would help in the development of MOC in the state.

Australian Construction Industry Forum

Australian Construction Industry Forum plays a supportive role in strengthening construction industry in Australia. ACIF have stringy promoted MOC for constructing houses for reducing house unavailability in Australia (Murray 2013). It has different team members who have provided the permit for building construction. It has various unions under it that functions for development of construction industry in Australia. The Australian government might create laws and policies for strengthening ACIF for development of MOC in the state. The use of proper policies in the industry helps in constructing houses for people in Australia. However, local unions in the state might create problems in this process. The Australian government have to take part in minimizing their interference in the development of MOC.

Matrix Table

Organization

Incentives

Building permits

Limitations of transport assembly

Unions

AUHRI

 

ü

 

ü

HIA

 

 

ü

 

HNA

ü

ü

 

 

ACIF

 

ü

 

ü

CBA

ü

 

ü

 

NHSC

ü

ü

 

ü

Commonwealth Bank of Australia

Commonwealth Bank of Australia (CBA) is an organization that has played an important role in developing MOC in Australia. It has provided housing loans for constructing new business and taking rent. This organization have limited the transport facility in the state (Schlagwein, Thorogood and Willcocks 2014). The CBA has helped financially to low-income people of Australia for building their houses. The Australian Government might allow CBA to provide house loans to the people who want to build their own homes in society. The government also allow Construction Company to tale loan from CBA for developing MOC in the state.

 

National Housing Supply Council Canberra

National Housing Supply Council Canberra include various experts that estimates analysis, projections and policy advice regarding housing loans and other matters (Gurran and Phibbs2016). NHSC organizes various campaigns for promoting MOC in the country and provide incentives for construction of buildings in Australia. A government might allow NHSC to gather information regarding the availability of empty houses in the locality. This might help in creating a chart for unavailability of a house in the locality. The number of people living in that locality without times can be provided to the NHSC. This data and information might help in developing MOC in the locality.  

Organization

Contribution to MOC

 

HNA

Health Need Assessment helps in describing health needs and health assets of various groups in a local population.

 

HIA

Health Impact Assessment report helps in resolving duplicity and integrating mitigation measures.

 

 

ACIF

Australian Construction Industry Forum (ACIF) is meeting place for leaders of the construction industry in Australia.

 

CBA

The Commonwealth Bank of Australia (CBA) is an Australian multinational bank with businesses across different countries across the world.

NHSC

National Housing Supply Council Canberra include various experts that estimates analysis, projections and policy advice regarding housing loans and other matters.

Table 1: Contribution of various organization to MOC

The above diagram describes the whole research on Modular Off-site Construction in Australia. There are two problems in the research including primary problem and secondary problem. A primary problem is housing affordability in Australia. The second problem includes union problems during construction of a building. The research focuses on both of these problems. There are some laws that have indirectly helped in mitigating these problems. Conventional buildings are traditional buildings containing small room and space. Therefore, the maximum number of people cannot accommodate in these types of buildings. This has also created problems in this research. The figure also describes direct and indirect links among all the elements included in the diagram. The dotted lines show indirect links between elements.  

Figure 5: Contribution level

(Source: Created by Author)

This figure describes the contribution level of different organization to MOC. The part inside middle circle signifies the level of contribution. The Australian Construction Industry Forum (ACIF) has contributed the maximum to solve the housing affordability problem in Australia. This organization have provided funds and permits for constructing buildings in the locality. The ACIF have almost contributed by 50%. Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute (AHURI) have also contributed to the MOC. It has focused on various fiscal changes in order to construct buildings for needy people. AHURI have contributed by 30% to the MOC. HIA, CBA and NHSC have tried to contribute to the MOC buy providing health report and funding to constructing buildings in Australia. Various campaigns and seminars are organized by these organizations for promoting MOC in Australia to resolve housing affordability problem.

Incentives

Incentives can be object, reward or value that helps in motivating and encouraging employees and other person based on their quality performance (Howard, Turban and Hurley 2016). In this case, the organization used to provide incentives to their employees for their quality performance and contribution provided in the development of the MOIC in Australia. Incentives are one of the policy tools that are used to maintain the progress of company. Surveys have been a primary tool for monitoring development of the company in the market.

Building permits

It is a type of authorization provided by government or any other legal regulatory body before construction of a new and existing building (Jovanovi?, Aristovnik and Lugari? 2016). The ACIF used to grant building permits for development of MOC in Australia. The building permits help in constructing buildings for the providing houses to individuals.

Unions

Central trade unions continue to oppose the government’s plans to ease retrenchment norms and restricting trade union membership under the Industrial Disputes Act (Nicholson, Pekarek and Gahan 2017). Different trade unions and committees create problems in the construction industry. However, Australian legal authorities and laws help in restricting disputes among them. Australian union laws have helped in providing legal provisions in construction industry.

International

affordability

rank

National rank

Metropolitan market

Median house price

Median Multiple

Median household income

218

1

Karratha, WA

$679,000

4.1

$166,800

224

2

Galdestone, QLD

$400,000

4.2

$94,200

248

3

Mildura, VIC

$213,000

4.5

$46,900

248

3

Townsville, QLD

$346,000

4.5

$76,400

257

5

Shepparton, VIC

$237,000

4.6

$51,400

264

6

Launceston, TAS

$250,000

4.7

$53,200

268

7

Alice Springs, NT

$469,500

4.8

$97,100

268

7

Rockhampton, QLD

$318,300

4.8

$66,600

268

7

Tamworth, NSW

$260,000

4.8

$54,500

277

10

Bunbury, WA

$380,000

4.9

$77,200

277

10

Mackay, QLD

$420,000

4.9

$86,300

277

10

Orange, NSW

$317,000

4.9

$64,600

282

13

Bathurst, NSW

$313,300

5.0

$63,200

282

13

Port Hedland, WA

$818,000

5.0

$163,700

289

15

Canberra, ACT

$562,200

5.3

$106,400

289

15

Geraldton, WA

$379,000

5.3

$71,500

289

15

Wagga Wagga, NSW

$333,700

5.3

$63,500

297

18

Hobart, TAS

$322,800

5.4

$59,500

297

18

Toowoomba, QLD

$309,000

5.4

$57,500

306

20

Ballarat, VIC

$290,000

5.5

$52,500

306

20

Cairns, QLD

$351,500

5.5

$63,600

312

23

Albury-Wodonga, NSW

$323120,000

5.8

$55,200

312

23

Albury-Wodonga, VIC

$320,000

5.8

$55,200

312

23

Brisbane, QLD

$442,100

5.8

$75,900

319

25

Bendigo, VIC

$315,000

6.0

$52,700

319

25

Newcastle-Maitland, NSW

$385,700

6.0

$64,800

319

25

Perth, WA

$508,000

6.0

$84,800

327

28

Adelaide, SA

$392,000

6.3

$61,800

329

29

Darwin, NT

$673,500

6.5

$103,600

332

30

Fraser Coast, QLD

$290,000

6.8

$42,600

332

30

Mandurah, WA

$390,000

6.8

$57,600

 

Table 2: Ranked housing affordability for Australian market from the most to least affordability

(Source: Iglcstorage.blob.core.windows.net, 2018)

This table focuses in the data of different places of Australia regarding the expenditure of people based on their income. These places have been ranked in the basis of international market and national market. The median of their expenditure rate has been provided in order to find the average expenditure of an individual.

Median Multiple: The Median Multiple refers to the indication for the affordability of housing in any given community. However, the Median Multiple is used to evaluate urban markets.

National ranking: It refers to the position assigned by the Human Resource department of the country. The affordability of houses in particular area can be ranked in order to provide statistical data.

Summary

This chapter deals with various concepts of modular offsite construction and its elements in the development in Australia. There are various theories and models have been discussed in the chapter. Different roles of the organizations and government have been discussed in the chapter.

An evaluation assembly of legislative bodies

This chapter discusses different methodologies used in this research. Research methodology is a process that helps in maintaining and conducting complete research is a proper manner. This chapter discusses about the structure of the research. Different ideas and approaches are discussed in this chapter. The use of philosophy, design and approach has been depicted in this chapter. Limitations of research, ethical considerations, data collection process has been depicted in this chapter.

Method Outline

As commented by Flick (2013), research outline include descriptive research design, deductive approach and positivism research philosophy. Secondary data has been collected from online journals, articles and governmental database.

Research Approach

Two types of research approaches are a deductive and inductive approach. The deductive approach focuses on existing theories and models related to the topic. On other hand, inductive approach aims at discovering new theories and models for research topic.

This research has selected deductive approach for finishing research within a deadline. Therefore, deductive approach has been selected by researcher for completing the study with appropriate theories and models.

Research Design

There are three types of research design including exploratory, logical and expressive plan. Research design gives an exact basic reason that gives a legitimate and in addition unmistakable reason for the exploration (Flick 2015). Different kinds of plans of a research help to direct a researcher so as to bargain the exploration venture with the goals of a research.

As remarked by Mackey and Gass (2015), exploratory research design is a long procedure of research plan. This plan gives a connection inductive outline of exploration. Informative research helps in interfacing diverse plans to comprehend circumstances and results of specific research. Descriptive research design leads entire research with more investigation and in addition clarification by putting more detail data of related research subject.  

The enlightening research design has been taken in this exploration. These aides in investigating the subject of exploration with additional data (Taylor, Bogdan and DeVault 2015). Descriptive research reason has given the full and best possible photo of research contemplate by consolidating included data.

Research Strategy

The research has been completed by using the secondary data analysis method. A thematic analysis has been conducted by creating three themes related to the research (Gast and Ledford 2014).The modular offsite construction is the solution to these problems. There are sine organizations including HIA, HNA, AHURI, ACIF and NHSC that have contributed in developing MOC in Australia. These organizations have helped in providing funds and support to the MOC.

Choice of method

As commented by Flick (2015), the types of method are mono method, multiple method and mixed type approach. Mono method deals with data collection method having only single technique. However, multiple method refers to multiple technique of data collection. This research has used secondary data collection method. Therefore, mono method has been used in this research for data collection.

Data collection process

 As commented by Smith (2015), information and data is a necessary requirement for the conduction of research work. This helps in conducting a valid research evaluation. In accordance with the collection of data, the methods involved are classified into two different types, the primary and secondary method of data collection. In accordance to this, there are two different processes of analyzing the collected data. These are the quantitative and the qualitative data analysis. The primary method of data collection involves utilizing various methods of collecting information from participants usually in the form of interviews or surveys. Moreover, Taylor, Bogdan and DeVault (2015) argued that the process of secondary data collection involves collecting data from various journals and books or websites and articles.  

 For addressing the need for research, the criteria required involves collection and analysis of feedbacks collected from the various participants present in a demographic profile. This profile can range from a small group of people to a large population. Furthermore, there are instances of researchers using the mixed data collection methods. The collection method used in this research paper is the secondary research method.  

Sample size

Three themes have been used for this research paper. In addition, the secondary method is applied for conducting data analysis. This is mainly done by collecting data from journals, books and websites.

Data analysis

Analysis of data is applied for adopting in the research paper, which involves two different methods. These are the quantitative and qualitative data analysis. The quantitative data analysis is involved with the analysis of primary sourced data, which are usually obtained from surveys and interviews (Taylor, Bogdan and DeVault 2015). Additionally, the qualitative method of analysis involves the analysis of the secondary data which is usually gathered from websites or journals.  For this research, the qualitative data analysis is used.

Accessibility issues

 The first accessibility issue is that the journals that have been taken are only available till 2012 which caused problems. In addition, some of the journals were not even published. Another accessibility issue is that the data from government websites were making it quite difficult to collect.  

Ethical consideration

 The ethical considerations that have been taken care that the data that have been collected will not be shared with third parties. This research has complied with the Data Protection Act 1998, which specifies that the information that has been collected must not be shared with any other media (Smith 2015). Moreover, the results of this research will also not be shared.

Research limitations

The main limitations of this research are the budget and time. The time that has been considered is 17 weeks for this research. However, if there had been 10 weeks more, a further thorough analysis could have been undertaken.

Summary

Thus, it can be summarized that the use of a systematic approach helps in properly conducting a research and achieving good results. This research has been done by conducting information from secondary sources and analyzing in a qualitative manner.

Data findings and Analysis

This chapter deals with the collection of data and information from secondary data sources. Data and information have been thematically analyzed for obtaining the results and outcomes of the research. The use of the qualitative data analysis has helped in creating themes for analyzing data and information.

Qualitative Analysis

Theme 1: Factors affecting the Modern Off-site manufacturing in Australia

Modern Off-Site construction has been creating space for the construction industry in Australia. Various factors have been affecting the off-site construction in Australia. These factors have been affecting the growth of modern off-site construction in positive and negative ways. These factors include time, quality, cost and environmental factors. Time plays an important role in maintaining the deadline for a project the planning and designing of the construction site is an important element for the project that helps in completing the project within a timeline. Time consumed by completing the project is important for the company to maintain a proper image in the market. The modern off-site construction is a new concept in the market.

Therefore, people are unaware of this technology. This creates the issue in developing the project within the deadline. Reduction in time can be obtained by overlapping of the off-site construction process and building activities in an advanced method.  The cost of a project helps in maintaining the budget of a project. Lowering the cost of construction helps in providing homes at a low price to the people. This helps in minimizing the primary problem if housing affordability in Australia. The use of the decision-making module in the modern off-site construction has maintained a proper angle to enhance the quality of the construction. The modern off-site construction has helped in constructing large rooms within time and low cost. The quality of the homes has been enhanced by implementing this concept and replacing traditional conventional buildings. These conventional buildings have small, rooms and spaces that create accommodation problem for people. The traditional method of the constructing building has been time taking and costly. The quality of the building has been maintained by the use of the modern off-site construction.

Theme 2: Decision making in MOC

Decision-making has been an important factor for implementing and developing modern off-site construction in Australia. These decisions are made by the key players of construction companies. The stakeholders are responsible for making decisions in the modern off-site construction projects. As discussed earlier, different organizations have also contributed to the development of modern off-site construction. The customers are responsible for managing the project as a discussed deadline for the project.

The constraints in this research have been controlling various elements of projects. The housing practice in the area has been a key constraint for availing houses for the people. These people are classified in numerous group based on various levels. A reflection of the construction industry of Australia has been fragmented from the traditional approach towards modern offsite construction methods. The building regularity issues have been creating issues in the implementation of MOC in Australia. The traditional fragmentation of the construction procedure has been not able to meet requirements and needs of the people of Australia. The housing unaffordability has been a major problem in the country.

Therefore, it has been a critical moment in the decision-making. Therefore, the building regulation issues have been a key driver for using modern offsite construction method in Australia. However, the existing building regulations are old enough to accommodate the offsite construction project. Therefore, decisions have to be made for amending the regulations to implement modern offsite construction.

Theme 3: Comparative analysis of driver and constraints of MOC

Various drivers and constraints of offsite construction have been discussed earlier in the paper that has helped in driving the modern offsite construction in Australia. The process and programme have appeared as low appreciations for the delivery speeds that OSM offers as major benefits in Australia and other countries. Various disciplines and processes are streamlined with the help of integrating IT systems into the project. The IT has been revolutionized modern offsite construction in the market. Management of the tasks and elements of the projects have become easy for the managers. Various improvements in design tools have helped in providing a proper design for a project. Several improved engineering solutions are provided for constructing buildings with quality. The lack of awareness among people has created issues in implementations and up gradation of construction method.

Perception of design fees is expensive in comparison to the traditional method and other methods of construction methods. The skills and knowledge of Australian labours have been low and needs to be maintained by the government and other organization involved in the MOC. The Australian industry appears to be appreciated for providing benefits due to an implementation of logistics and site operations. However, no quality constraints have been found in the Australian workshops that might relief various theories discussed in the literature. The use of the theories and models discussed in the review has helped in getting an idea about the construction industry. The positivism philosophy refers to philosophical elements of the research that provides a utilizing reality related to the research topic. Therefore, environmental factors have been the critical factor in the development of offsite construction in Australia the environmental factors include ecosystem around a construction site.  

Conclusion and Recommendations

The purpose of this paper is to develop the concept of Modern Offsite construction in Australia in order to minimize house affordability problem. The use of the theories and model in this paper have helped in understanding a basic concept of offsite construction, the concept of modern offsite construction have been provided in this research paper. Several benefits of MOC have been provided for replacing it with the traditional method of construction method. The use of MOC has helped in mitigating primary housing problem in Australia. This paper focuses on the changes made in the use of land for use planning projects by various companies in the country. The literature review discussed in the paper have helped in identifying the factors affecting the modern offsite construction in Australia. The government of Australia have implemented various laws and policies in different construction sites. As suggested by Flick (2015), research philosophy has provided various dimensions related to study of the research. It helps in providing basic data and information about the research. It is of mainly two types including Ontology and Epistemology. On the other hand, Silverman (2016) argued that a specific philosophy is selected from the epistemology paradigm. The research philosophy includes realism, positivism and post-positivism. However, post-positivism philosophy helps in providing clarity to a research study. As mentioned by Taylor, Bogdan and DeVault, (2015), realism helps in identifying objectives of research. This research has used positivism philosophy.

This has helped in monitoring progress of projects in the state. It has helped in improving the performance of the projects. This research has followed a proper methodology for completing this research. The implementation of the planning policies have been maintained by the government and appropriate strategies have to make for mitigating various challenges. Data and information regarding this research have been collected from various online journals, articles and government databases.

The secondary data collection method has been used by the researcher. Dara and information have been properly analyzed in order to provide a better outlook on the research. Thematic data analysis method has been used in this research. The analyzed data have helped in analyzing factors affecting the modern offsite construction in the country. The roles of different organizations including AHURI, HIA, NHSC and CBA have been properly discussed that helped in identifying contribution to Modern off-site construction. People in Australia have been facing housing affordability problem and house planning problems.

Recommendations

  • It is necessary for the MOC to move forward by creating several strategies of integration and coordination of other factors in the development of the MOC in Australia. The use of Decision Support Model (DSM) needs to be implemented in this research. It might be in maintaining the offsite manufacturing unit if the company. The traditional on-site production of houses needs to be improved with the implementation of modern offsite construction.
  • The recent version of DSM is developed using Microsoft Excel spreadsheet software. This increases time consumption for completing a project. Therefore, there is a need for a software that might calculate automatically. This might help in reducing a time for completing the deadline.
  • This research has developed various drivers and constraints that have helped in identifying the factors responsible for creating problems in the implementation of the MOC in Australia. There are some assumptions made for implementing offsite construction in Australia. Therefore, these assumptions need to be removed and directly affect drivers and constraints of the industry. The adoption of OSM in Australia has been seen several changes as compared to other countries. OSM have helped in changing the mental awareness of people in the country the use of the MOC has developed the construction industry. However, the use of the advanced technology might mitigate challenges faced modern offsite construction in the market.

Future Work

This research paper have focused on basic concepts of modern offsite construction in Australia. However, there are several limitations identified in the research paper. The use of existing theories and models have helped in providing information about the MOC. However, future researchers might work on discovering new theories and models for gathering more information on the MOC.

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