Summarise the main development of a child from age range 0-2years, 3-5years and 5-8 years. Physical development of children varies within very wide limits, depending on the weight and size at the birth, nutrition and health, but also the genetic heritage (parents or grandparents size).
When a baby is born, for first three months he lie on their back, but is able to make basic distinction in vision, hearing, smelling, tasting, touching. Many people think babies are helpless, but they are born with the ability to do few things: they can recognize their mum’s voice and smell, they are able to cry and let everyone know when they need help. Babies are born with many reflexes which are actions that they perform without thinking. Around three months baby will start lifting his head and will be able to kick.
As time goes, the baby will be able to grasp objects and try to put that in their mouth. Mobility usually comes at the ages of nine to twelve months. They will be able to crawl and some might be able to sit and walk unaided. They can hold and throw toys. At the age of one most babies can climb up the stairs (with adult help). Children at two years age are very mobile. They will be able to throw and kick a ball but may not be very confident to catch it.
Children of three years age will be able to walk, run and jump from low heights. By three a child will have learnt most methods of movement, they will be able to walk backwards and sideways, and may even jump from low heights, they should also be able to ride a tricycle. When a child is four years old they can catch, throw and kick a ball with full confidence. They are able to walk in a straight line. At four they should be able to catch, throw, kick and bounce balls and should also be confident with balance. By the time a child reaches their fifth birthday, changes in physical development are much rapid .Usually by five they moves freely and with pleasure and confidence in a range of ways, such as rolling, crawling, walking, running, skipping, sliding and hopping.
At age of 5-8 the child has lots of energy, plus the balance and coordination for lots of activities, including swimming, riding a bike, skipping and playing with a ball. Their balance and agility will have increased enormously by this age.
From birth children begin to learn how to use their senses to explore the world around them. Within the early months a child will make eye contact and be able to turn their head to the smell of their mother breasts. At age of three months babies smile back when they see a smiling face. By six months babies have learnt many skills, they are very alert and turn their heads to see what is happening. They enjoy playing, they can now reach out and grab a toy and over it from one hand to another. By two years old, children are very much showing their individuality. They know what they want to do, touch and hold. They enjoy singing and dancing to music, pointing to picture of familiar objects and naming them.
At age three their concentration grows and they are able to control pencils and paintbrushes, at four years old their memory will develop quickly, and should be able to build things with small blocks. They respond well to adult praise and recognition. Children ask questions and enjoy talking. Around the age of five a child should be able to count confidently and recognize letters and most children have begun in formal education.
Between the age six and eight years the child’s reading and mathematics skills will have develop a lot and they will be able to read and write independently.
From birth to three months they are crying and cooing and they can recognise and respond to sounds. At three –six months they star imitate the sounds that they recognize. At age one children can are beginning to talk and can say “mama” and “dada”. At age of two children start to talk and enjoy talking.
Between the age of three and five they would be able to learn songs and rhymes .They will enjoy listening to stories. At age of five they will become very confident speaker.
At this age children are able to describe things accurately and they will use a much wider vocabulary and of words.
Babies start to smile and to recognize the face and voice of their mother or carer. They start being aware about the people that they don’t know and they enjoy being secure . from one to two they will become aware of the moods of those around them.
At this stage the children can communicate what they are feeling. At the age of five they can control their own emotions.
At this stage the child starts to feel sensitive about who other children feel about him. They may compare themselves to their friends and peers (“He is better at drawing than I am” or “She is a better soccer player”). They will experience a variety of mood changes as they grow in years and develop.
From birth till age of nine months the babies are very sociable, from nine to twelve months they will discover who to play alone and they will not be as dependent on others for their entertainment. Between one and two years old they become more confident and independent
Children enjoy making friends and sociailsing. They enjoy being with others and they can choose what is good and wrong and understand the importance of sharing and tacking turns.
At the age of six some children become less sociable and some prefer to have one special friend. They start having their social circle where they find themselves comfortable. Analyse key social, economic and environmental factors, which may influence development There are many factors that influence child development, and for most of them, we do have some control.
Every child deserves the opportunity to blossom. Love is very important when we speak about the social development. When the child feels the love and affection from his carer or parent he can make friends and progress well in development and he is happy emotionally. When the love is missing you can observe sad children, neglected, isolated, unfriendly, upset There are socio-economic trends that can influence child development. It is true that poorer families are at a disadvantage when it comes to providing the richest environment for a child to grow. Many families must rely on public education that may not be the best in their area. It is very difficult for poor families when a child needs special services to aid development.
A child will benefit more when a parent work part time and spend more quality time with the child, but in some situation this is not possible. A loving caring environment can benefit more than having a lots of money, although the child may not have expensive items, but he will benefit by been happy and loved. Children living in poverty may also have poor nutrition, limiting their ability to reach their potential. Environmental influences on child development, as opposed to genetic influences which are not in our power. The world around us has a major part in shaping the child. A child’s environment – for example, his family or school – plays a huge part in his development. Simply stated, a nurtured child will do better than a deprived child.
That may seem like common sense, but you may not realize the little things that make a difference. Some assume that a rich privileged child will automatically thrive more than a child living in poverty. That is not always the case. An environmental factor which can also affect the children be when the family is moving house. This aspect affect the child who is losing the current friends and school and the child can be anxious and withdrawn. Losing their friends can be as traumatic as losing a favorite toy. Describe children’s overall development needs
A child development is split into main parts physical, intellectual, social/emotional, language. All children need stability, good home, encouragement from parents, the correct nutrition in order for them to grow and develop well. Love is very important for their emotional and physical development. Children also need stability with their homes, parents, friends.They can be seriously affected if a divorce occurs between their parents. In order to grow they need to benefit by a good dietary and nutrition habits. Lots of vegetables and fruits are recommended. Exercises, sports are also good for their physical development. The fresh air, a walk in the park or somewhere to explore and learn more about the environment.
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