The elections to head the Muslim population is initiated and it attracts two candidates; Ali and Uthman.
Uthman after being appointed to head the Muslim community is faced with lots of criticisms. In order to ensure that the Quraysh remain in power he centralized the power and placed powers on himself to fire and hire governors in addition to his efforts of changing the Quran.
The expansion of the
Muslim empire in the early days was done through conquering Islamic regions and
countries. Uthman wanted to expand the empire to Nubia and along with Northern
Africa. He also wanted to extend the Muslim naval power along the
Mediterranean, which was to be effected by Syria and Egypt governors (Kennedy
73). Uthman’s reign extended to Iran and Cyprus and who were required to pay
tribute to him. In Umar’s time, the early comers who originated from small
tribes dominated Kufa and due to their participation in battles, they were
awarded high salaries and lots of wealth. The dictatorship involved in the
Muslim leadership was manifested when Uthman got into power. He challenged the
privileges formerly awarded by Umar and additionally appointed new governors in
Kufa (Kennedy 78). He also required that revenue originating from the province
be directed to Medina. Any protesting his demands, for instance, Ibn Masud was
caned in Medina inside a mosque, and irrespective of the fact that he was he
was an esteemed Prophet’s friend. Uthman also fired Amr the Egypt’s governor in
order to implement his rules and appointed a loyal governor; Ibn Sarh, who was
to increase revenue to be transferred to Medina (Kennedy 80). He also expanded
the interests of the caliph. The governor faced numerous protests by the locals
coupled with violence. Uthman death saw the introduction of Ali as the new
caliph and though he never participated in Uthman’s murder, his reign faced major
opposition especially from Quraysh. Clearly, the Muslim empire expansion and
rule faced a lot of opposition and dictatorship.
Kennedy, Hugh. The Prophet and the Age of Caliphates. Pearson Education UK, 2004. Print.
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