The Expectancy Theory in Managing Organizations

Victor Vroom projected the expectancy theory in 1964. Victor stress and concentrates on results. The theory indicates that the vigor of the propensity to perform in a specific manner is reliant on the vigor of anticipation that their hard work will lead to a specific outcome.

The Expectancy theory indicates that workers inspiration is as a result of how much a person requires an incentive (Valence), the evaluation that the chance that their hard work will result to anticipated performance (Expectancy) and the confidence that the effort will result to reward (Instrumentality). In brief, Valence is the importance associated by an employee about the projected outcome. Thus, managers should know that it is the anticipated and not the real satisfaction that a worker expects to receive after attaining the objectives. Expectancy is the confidence that improved efforts may result in improved rewards. Therefore, factors affecting are for instance ownership of suitable skills for performing the task, accessibility of right resources, accessibility of critical information and receiving the required support for finishing the job (Lunenburg, 2011).

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This is a vital theory in organizational management since in advices the managers that; firstly, that the workers expect their effort to be recognized in their performance appraisal. Secondly, the degree to which the workers believes that acquiring a good performance appraisal results to organizational rewards. Thirdly, a worker works hard depending on the attractiveness or appealing nature of the prospective reward to them.

Vroom says that employees deliberately choose if to work hard or not at a task. This resolution solely depends on the workers motivation level, which sequentially depends on three aspects of expectation, valence and instrumentality.


Lunenburg, F. (2011). Expectancy Theory of Motivation: Motivating by Altering Expectations. Retrieved July 24, from,%20Fred%20C%20Expectancy%20Theory%20%20Altering%20Expectations%20IJMBA%20V15%20N1%202011.pdf

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