Although the physical form can be easily solved the spiritual form takes more work and preparation. The preparation to fight and conquer spiritual wars takes determination and spiritual maturity to be able to fight the devil and win. The kind of physical war preparation and teachings are elaborated in Ephesians 6:10-18. Paul as a philosopher and teacher of the gospel was specific about the kind of message he taught to the early believers. Preparation for spiritual warfare and interpersonal relationship is elaborated in the book of Ephesians.
10 Finally, be strong in the Lord and in his mighty power. 11 Put on the full armor of God, so that you can take your stand against the devil’s schemes. 12 For our struggle is not against flesh and blood, but against the rulers, against the authorities, against the powers of this dark world and against the spiritual forces of evil in the heavenly realms.13 Therefore put on the full armor of God, so that when the day of evil comes, you may be able to stand your ground, and after you have done everything, to stand. 14 Stand firm then, with the belt of truth buckled around your waist, with the breastplate of righteousness in place, 15 and with your feet fitted with the readiness that comes from the gospel of peace. 16 In addition to all this, take up the shield of faith, with which you can extinguish all the flaming arrows of the evil one.
This passage was chosen as it fits in the overall preparation of a good Christian. Prior to the chapter, Paul teaches about the appropriate relationship between parents and their children. The lessons of humanly behavior allowed the believers to easily interact and maintain physical relationships, while strengthening the spiritual life, which was also essential for the believers. Similarly, in Ephesians, Paul talks to the believers over and over about maintaining their spiritual prowess and being in touch with their spirituality regularly. Thus, the topic of the Armor of God is appropriate as it talks of the manner in which it can be easily achieved. The verses talk of the manner in which Christians can be well prepared to be able to fight and conquer challenges when they manifest in their spiritual lives. Paul emphasizes on the importance of faith, truth, righteousness, and hope. In Ephesians 6:10-16, Paul talks of specific items/virtues that are necessary to win spiritual fights. The items, which are similar to the ones used in wars are used to create vivid images on the issues presented in the teaching. The items are a breastplate, sword, helmet, and shield. All the items are compared to virtues such as peace, truth, and salvation that is useful in spiritual warfare.
Thesis: All the items of war mentioned in the verses are used as coded language to allow Christians to visualize, get the importance, and make their judgement on the value of God in their lives in preparation of the spiritual warfare; moreover, the verse is useful for modern Christians in the same manner as the church of Ephesians.
The book of Ephesians was written by the Apostle to the church of Ephesians. The book of Ephesians was written to the church of Ephesians when the apostle was in prison in Rome. The authorship is identified in the first verse of the book. As Heil explains, “the Paul who is the main author of the ‘undisputed’ letters of Paul, is indeed also the main author of the letter to the Ephesians.” In this case, it is clear that the book was initially documented as a letter commonly referred to as epistles. The epistle to the church was written by the author to inform the church of the body of Christ. As part of the other letters such as Colossians, Philippians, and Romans to mention but a few, the letter was to strengthen the faith of the believers in the absence of Paul. The people were slowly loosing hope as their leader had been arrested and lacked direction. However, in the passage Paul writes to encourage them to be prepared for the second coming of Jesus, through spiritual fighting of the devil and all the challenges he throws at them. The passage is a continuation of the lessons that Paul teaches to be appropriate for the peaceful relationship of the Ephesians church. The passages before that teaches followers the manner in which they can be helpful of one another, respect their parents, and honor God with their wealth. Therefore, the lesson on how to be prepared for the attack of the enemy by wearing the armor of God fits the context.
The church of Ephesus was initially documented in the Acts of Apostles. Paul in his second mission had taken time to teach to the people in the city accompanied by Aquinas. In their mission, they had been given a chance to teach at the synagogue and managed to turn more people to the gospel of Christ. Even so, the tremendous conversions had led to challenges with the reigning authority, which was mostly idol worshiping. After being stopped from teaching at the temple, other political challenges erupted and caused the teaching in the area difficult for Paul and his disciples. That was not all as challenges continued to accumulate. According to the bible commentary by Deffinbaugh, “As Paul had purposed, he did reach Jerusalem, and then Rome, but not in a way that we would have anticipated. When Paul reached Jerusalem, he took the advice of the (Jewish) leaders of the church there, and as a result was arrested on false charges.” Nonetheless, from prison, he wrote to the five churches he had taught. The number of the followers had increased and constantly inquired of his whereabouts thus, he reached out to encourage them.
The church of Ephesus was unique to the other churches that Apostle Paul was teaching at that moment. For instance, unlike the other letters, the epistle to Ephesus was not a rebuke or solution to their problems. The epistle to the church of Galatians for example, was written to rebuke the church for not adhering to the doctrines taught to them. The book of Ephesians expresses the importance of following the doctrine and being prepared for Christ. As expressed in a commentary, “Ephesians speaks from eternity, not from time, and from the heavenlies, not from the earth. The book of Ephesians brings us into eternity. Do not stay in time—get into eternity.” The nature of the epistle was to encourage the church to improve their understanding of the gospel. The church was still young and aimed at growing more and more. Therefore, after the arrest and the epistle, Paul was impressed with the growth of the church that he eventually sent Timothy to guide the followers.
Eph: 1:1-2 Introduction: the address of sender and recipient and the purpose
Eph 1-3: body: riches coming from the gospel
In the verse, the idea of evil and darkness is addressed. Paul addresses the issue of Satan being the enemy to all Christians, which is expected of him at all times. As documented on the twelfth verse, “so that you can take your stand against the devil’s schemes. For our struggle is not against flesh and blood, but against the rulers, against the authorities, against the powers of this dark world and against the spiritual forces of evil in the heavenly realms.” In this case, believers should be aware of the main challenge that they face, which is the devil. The devil and forces of the darkness are explained as the main hindrance in the life of a believer. Moreover, the idea of the fight being spiritual is well elaborated. The fight is not physical as humans cannot attack the evil spirits rather it has to be through prayer and maturing in the gospel. Furthermore, the spiritual warfare requires all humans to take staunch stands against the evil one. In this case, the believers should be specific about their beliefs and trust in the Lord, so as to be able to attack the devil and win through gaining eternal life. Similarly, Paul admits that the journey and spiritual fights that all Christians endure are not easy. He encourages people to be more vigilant and strong as the fight is not easy. As it is written, “Finally, be strong in the Lord and in his mighty power.” In that, all Christians are only guaranteed of winning the spiritual war through trusting in the strength of the Lord. The fight that all Christians endure is tough and the only true source of comfort and strength is in believing that the creator protects them.
Moreover, the verses focus on the armor needed in the fight against the evil spirits making use of the problem-solution pattern. Similar to earthly wars, the spiritual wars need one to be prepared to fight by getting the right kind of tools. Paul writes to the church of Ephesians, “with the belt of truth buckled around your waist, with the breastplate of righteousness in place…take up the shield of faith, with which you can extinguish all the flaming arrows of the evil one. Take the helmet of salvation and the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God.” Clearly, in the fight against all the forces of darkness, the Apostle Paul emphasizes the power of the truth. The belt is essential, as a part of the armor, thus, it is important to ensure it is well strapped. Secondly, the Apostle emphasizes righteousness. In this, he explains that for all Christians to win against the devil, they should be righteousness and seeking spiritual perfection. Christians must continue to trust in God for them to win wars against Satan. Thirdly, Christians are encouraged to take steps of faith. In the armor description, faith is compared to a shield. This is because when Christians are faithful in the word and teachings of the Lord, they will always be protected. Fourthly, the Apostle talks of the essentiality of salvation for all believers. In this case, in order for Christians to win spiritual fights, they should be believers in the gospel of truth. This is because if they are only believers without salvation, the devil will easily defeat them. Finally, the Apostle expounds on the sword as being equivalent to the word of God. The word of God comes as one is saved and seeks to know more about the gospel. Understanding the word allows Christians to fight easily the forces of darkness by prophesying and speaking the word as it is written. The word is placed as one of the most important parts of the armor as it vital in the development of a better Christian. The armor is well elaborated as a process that takes time to be completed. In this case, one starts by understanding the truth of the existence of right and wrong after which, one proceeds to be faithful to the choice one makes. After the faith has been acquired, the gospel of peace is easily understood. Afterward, salvation is inevitable and eventually, understanding the word of God becomes easy. The armor is developed as a process and vitality for all Christians to easily fight the devil and win against the forces of darkness with the help of God.
Notably, the author makes use of amplification and metaphors in the passage. By doing this, the apostle seeks to make the audience understand the importance of the issues he addresses. The use of the metaphors of the armory allows the Christians to envision the kind of readiness that they are expected to show. Moreover, the aspect of war is amplified to allow people to learn the extend in which they are to be prepared. As cited in the text, “unless we know who the enemy is, where he is and what he can do, we will have a difficult time defeating him.” In this case, in order to shun the devil, one should be aware of evil and good. The devil has been described as a liar and a deceiver in the bible on a couple of occasions, both in the teachings of Jesus and other prophesies. The amplification and the use of armory and the war that the Christians face is amplified to allow the Christians prepare adequately.
The passage in Ephesians 6 correlates with the armor worn by one of the Roman soldier who is believed to be holding Paul hostage. According to Zondervan Pictorial Encyclopedia, Paul’s description of the type of armor that Christians are supposed to clothe themselves with is similar to what the soldier was wearing(320). Paul used his surrounding environment to share about the experiences he was undergoing, while concurrently inspiring the masses with his teachings. This depiction of the armor to be used against the attack from the devil has been used incessantly as an inspirational scripture against the devil. Polbius, a Historian from Greece (having wrote a number of historical events during his time in 264-146 B.C) highlights the events of Paul’s experience regarding the Christian armor in his text. The Zondervan Pictorial Encyclopedia indicates:
Polybius (6,22 and 23) describes the Roman soldier as wearing such a helmet, a breastplate of brass or chain mail (lorica) to cover especially the heart and greaves; and as carrying a javelin, a sword hanging from the right side of the waist, and a shield, either one circular or one about two and a half feet by four feet in length. This description compares favorably with Paul’s metaphorical statement (Ephesians 6:14-17) about the Christian armor and the history of the message allows a Christian to get the importance of being spiritually mature and ready for war.
During this time, Paul was surrounded by a number of guardsmen who were tasked with watching over him. His attribution of the Christian journey to the armor of the soldiers is completely relevant. Through his example, Christians can not only be inspired by his analogy, but also learn the importance of true worship- worshipping God during the hard times. Paul was able to observe from his environment and utilize the features surrounding him to inspire hope. Paul was still able to help people despite the dire situation that he was going through. In the same way, as followers of Christ, we should learn to form true worship of God, in spite and despite the situations that surround us.
The comparison aspect relates to the different commentaries that were made in relation to the specific Bible Verse (in our case, this is relevant to Ephesians 6:10-18). The commentary made by Matthew Henry on verse 10 that relates to being strong in the Lord reflects on the spiritual strengths. Henry relates the strength that Paul is advocating for to keeping the faith irrespective of the various challenges one faces. In comparison, Jamieson Fausset Brown’s commentary relates to the wording of the term ‘Finally’ that had been highlighted at the beginning of the verse. He indicates the lack of the word in other manuscripts. He therefore suggests that the application of this word could be related to Paul’s need to increase the levels of urgency related to spiritual battles. In relation to verse 11, Henry’s view pertains to the individuals who pretend to conduct themselves gracefully, but in essence, should require heavenly type of Grace, which is infinite. He relates this to the armor that had been highlighted by Paul in relation to spiritual battles. In comparison, Brown’s commentary pertains to the comparison with Romans 13:14 that highlights a similar incident of one armoring self against the spiritual attacks from the devil.
In addition, Henry’s commentary on verse 12, he highlights three aspects “(1.) We have to do with a subtle enemy, an enemy who uses wiles and stratagems, as v. 11… (2.) He is a powerful enemy: Principalities, and powers, and rulers. They are numerous, they are vigorous; and rule in those heathen nations which are yet in darkness… (3.) They are spiritual enemies: Spiritual wickedness in high places, or wicked spirits, as some translate it. The devil is a spirit, a wicked spirit; and our danger is the greater from our enemies because they are unseen, and assault us ere we are aware of them”. In comparison, Brown’s text highlights that in this text, Paul was rebuking the Ephesians for using sorcery, as it was attributed to the devil. In verse 13, Henry’s commentary pertains to the need to avoid falling into the temptations of the devil by making practical use of God’s Grace; while Brown highlights the importance of having the armor of God every time, since the attacks from the devil cannot be easily predicted. In verse 14 and 15, both Henry and Brown highlight the importance of being truthful, since it reflects God’s attributes and character. In verse 16, Henry points out the necessity of the verse in comparison to all other verses in this text as it talks about Faith. He outlines that faith is important as it is the foundation of any form of Christian conduct. Brown in relation to verse 16,still points out the relevance of this verse, as Paul has used the term “above all” to indicate significance. In verse 17, Henry outlines the relevance of Paul in relation to using the term ‘helmet’ as one that pertains to ensuring that the Christian values have a good basis and using the word of God to combat any form of spiritual attack. Brown highlights the relation between hope and faith, indicating verses that are similar to this verse such as Romans 5:5. He goes ahead and explains the relevance of Paul using the helmet analogy; as the head is the most important part of the body- so is salvation. In verse 18, both commentaries agree on the importance of prayer as highlighted by Paul.
Both Matthew Henry and James Fausset Brown give relevant commentaries to the Bible verse highlighted in Ephesians 6:10-18 that pertains to the factors that contribute to spiritual wellness. Albeit, Brown gave a more objective approach, in comparison to Henry. There was a substantial amount of interpretation from Henry that could have easily digressed from what Paul was advocating for.
In the Biblical verse above, some of the words in the New Testament that were outstanding in the NIV version are armor, breastplate, shield and the word finally. The word armor has been used metaphorically. Just as the soldier’s armor was meant to protect him from total obliteration from a weapon, the armor of God’s Word is meant to protect the Christians from the temptations of the Devil. The word breastplate has also been used metaphorically to indicate the importance of being righteous, as a guard of the heart. The breastplate is used to guard the chest (especially the heart), from injury since the chest has the vital organs that can easily cause death to the person in the event that they are injured. Similarly, righteousness is key to proper functioning faith, without righteousness, the faith in a person can easily die. In addition, the word shield has been used to metaphorically show the importance of faith in any Christian walk. Just as the shield is used to protect the soldier from the immediate impact of the sword (or any other weapon), faith is the immediate response that the Christian is expected to use against any spiritual attack from the enemy. Any form of doubt and fear should incorporate faith as a means to overcome the attacks from the Devil. The use of the term finally is attributed to an addition of the set of instructions that Paul had highlighted previous to the Bible verse highlighted in text.. As experts narrate, “Change, the process of moving to a new and different state of things is a constant for organizations in order to survive and stay competitive.” In this case, readiness encompasses the idea of being prepared to make a change and make a change that involves being ready for the second coming of the Lord. Similarly, it speaks of being prepared to fight and win against the devil when he attacks the spirituality of believers.
As mentioned in the NIV version, the struggles of believers are beyond the physical, because it is of the spirit. As Henry concurs, “They are spiritual enemies: Spiritual wickedness in high places, or wicked spirits, as some translate it. The devil is a spirit, a wicked spirit; and the danger is greater from our enemies because they are unseen, and assault us when we are aware of them.” In this case, as Christians, it is essential to understand the manner in which one can be able to face challenges when they occur. The verses expound that the items of war and preparation allows Christians to be more prepared for the fight. Preparation in spiritual wars is as important as it is in the physical. Therefore, in order to make sure that one excels in fighting the devil, one should be well conversant with the issues of faith and virtues of Christianity. The verse challenges people to make sure they observe growth so that one can fight and overcome when the war comes to them.
The teaching of the armor is a revelation among many that give a summed up teaching of interpersonal relationships between people and that of spiritual interaction. In the book of Ephesians, the Apostle captures a variety of topics. As Donovan agrees, “Paul had called these Christians to “walk worthily of the calling with which you were called” (4:1)—the key verse for chapters 4-6. Everything in these three chapters spells out what is involved in Christians walking worthily of their calling.” The teaching comes after Paul expounds more on the teachings of better relations between people that relate as brothers in Christ. In the given bible verses, Paul continue to explain that it is particularly important to maintain the same relation with the creator. This means that in the same way that people relate nicely in the Christian community, they should also be particularly interested in the improvement of their spiritual lives. The idea of remaining knowledgeable about the changes in their spiritual lives is important. The Apostle warns of the lack of preparation on the side of Christians and the danger it possess to their overall development. The book of Ephesians is a guide book, which is made complete with the addition of understanding of the armor of God, which is useful in the development of a better relationship with God.
The Apostle Paul in writing about the armor of God, he was hoping to teach people a variety of ways to grow spiritually. In this case, the armor should be the guiding principle of the steps to take, to avoid derailing the spiritual growth. As Benson explains, “The apostle having delivered the preceding precepts respecting relative duties, now adds a general exhortation to the believing Ephesians, to be hearty and zealous in the performance of all their duties, which he enforces by the discovery of another deep article of the mystery.” In this case, the apostle expects Christians to be in continuous process of growth. The growth he talks about is importance for all so as to be ready when faced with warfare. The constant practice of the virtues expressed in Ephesians allows a Christian to grow and be more mature in the issues of the gospel. The armor of salvation allows Christians to practice and grow to spiritual capacity.
The main point in the passage is the items that were essential in the fight against the powers of darkness. As a Christian, there are things that happen that require believers to be ready for warfare. As mentioned in verse 12, “For our struggle is not against flesh and blood, but against the rulers, against the authorities, against the powers of this dark world, and against the spiritual forces of evil in the heavenly realms.” In this case, the fight for Christians is not of the physical rather of the spirit. The chapter introduces the struggle to the people and continues to explain how it is tackled through various weapons. The concept of a shield and sword creates the idea of the struggle being like a physical battle in which a warrior needs to be well covered and have enough items to fight the battle. As Christians, the armor allows people to visualize the essentiality of the items and virtues of Christians so as to be able to fight and conquer the devil as he comes. Generally, the verses are created in a manner in which average Christian can visual war and how one can win against the attacks of the enemy. The visual impact of the verses allows Christians across all generations to visualize and relate the narrative to real life stories.
Furthermore, the Apostle Paul makes use of the metaphor to allow the Ephesians to relate to the main message being sent. In most of the teachings of Paul to the churches, he sent letters. In the letters passing the information as he imagined them was difficult. Therefore, use of metaphorical language was essential in ensuring that the main message was clearly developed and explained to the people in faraway lands from where he was. As Boa asserts, “the spiritual life is progressively cultivated in the discipline of the faith…this is why Paul uses the metaphors.” In this case, the use metaphors allowed him to pass the message in a clearer manner. Paul was crafty and well organized that he ensured all the revelations and messages were well relayed in his letters to other nation. The metaphor of a soldier relates to the roman cultures thus, all the people that he preached to could relate with the message and interpret it to the best of their knowledge without the actual presence of the Apostle.
The biblical passage of the Armor was included as it represents the overall preparation of someone as he/she await Christ rather than the single preparation of the outward appearance. In the armor, the outward appearance is emphasized and compared to the internal preparedness. However, gaining the actual merit based on good behavior and practice is the most important. As Broge explains, “The armor these soldiers are wearing is not gained by their own merit, but spiritual gifts they are blessed with.” The idea of a wholesome development of a person is important than the outwardly appearance. Apostle Paul emphasizes the overall preparation of all people to ensure that they can withstand all types of storms that come their way. The idea of preparation allows the plans of the evil one to be defeated at all times. The metaphor used explains to the believers that the idea of moral preparation allows the followers to believe in God on a deeper level and shun the devil and his wicked plans aside. In sending the message, Paul expected the readers to prepare adequately for the spiritual war ahead. The text makes the claim that the listeners were spiritually growing and were living in accordance to the initial lessons of the Apostle as he taught in the synagogues. Therefore, the metaphors were to strengthen their faith as they waited the returning of Jesus Christ.
The reading of the Armor of God has been challenging to me during the study. Prior to the reading process, I did not understand much of the main ideas presented in the text. The metaphor used seemed outdated and irrelevant. However, the study process has opened my eyes to the essentiality of the teaching to both a modern and ancient Christian. In my understanding, the modern generation of Christians gets a chance to understand the important values that are needed to successfully defeat evil spirits. The modern Christian understands the importance of the process of transformation of a growing Christian. Similarly, the teaching must have been relevant to the ancient Christians who hoped to understand the teachings of the Apostle in his absence. The chapter offers a guideline to all Christians wishing to be matured in the laws of the Lord. Moreover, the armory allows Christians to be sure of the items that are essential for the wholesome development of Christians seeking to be positioned to defeat Satan on earth prior to the return of Jesus. The process of finishing the analysis was also informative during the research as I gained knowledge of the subject of discussion. The topic and the sources allowed the interpretation period to be smooth and easy. Furthermore, the analysis of the topic of research allowed me to understand the items that are essential in the wholesome development of the Christian disciplinary methods and practices. In this case, as a believer, I got to understand the items that God desires of his followers in order for him to be faithful to them as well.
In Ephesians, Apostle Paul teaches everyday practices and concepts that make Christians better. The idea of armor is equally similar in meaning and purpose. Metaphorically, the idea of being prepared for a war is similar to being prepared for the second coming of Christ by avoiding war and encounters with the evil spirits. Believing and practicing in emphasized in the preparation of any form of spiritual challenges. The use of the connoted words and things is to allow the readers and believers to continue reflecting upon the message for generations to come. Moreover, it allows the visualized message to be understood better. The teaching of the chapter ensures that all Christians grow spiritually and practice doctrines that allow them to be better prepared for attacks from the devil. As believers, being able to fight spiritual wars and win is a positive thing as is with the physical wars. The verses presented in the book allows all Christians, both young and old, to rethink the items that are needed in order to pass given evil challenges that the devil passes their way.
Abdel-Ghany, Mohamed M. “Readiness for change, change beliefs and resistance to change of extension personnel in the New Valley Governorate about mobile extension.” Annals of Agricultural Sciences 59, no. 2 (2014), 297-303.
Bible Hub. “Ephesians 6:10 Commentaries: Finally, Be Strong in the Lord and in the Strength of His Might.” Bible Hub: Search, Read, Study the Bible in Many Languages. Last modified 2018. https://biblehub.com/commentaries/ephesians/6-10.htm.
Boa, Kenneth. conformed to his image. Michighan: Zondervan, 2010.
Broge,, Jason. “Proper 17 • Ephesians 6:10–20,” : Vol. 41 : No. 3 , Article 10.” Concordia Journal 41, no. 3 (2015), 32-44. Available at: https://scholar.csl.edu/cj/vol41/iss3/10.
Brown, Jamieson. “Ephesians 6 Commentary – Commentary Critical And Explanatory On The Whole Bible”. Bible Study Tools. Accessed 14 December 2018. https://www.biblestudytools.com/commentaries/jamieson-fausset-brown/ephesians/ephesians-6.html.
Deffenbaugh, Bob. “The Uniqueness of Ephesians Among the Epistles.” Bible.org. Last modified May 26, 2007. https://bible.org/seriespage/1-uniqueness-ephesians-among-epistles.
Donovan, Richard N. “Ephesians 6:10-20.” Sermon Writer. Last modified 2015. https://www.sermonwriter.com/biblical-commentary/ephesians-610-20/.
Heil, John P. “Book Review: Ephesians: Empowerment to Walk In Love for the Unity of All In Christ.” Interpretation: A Journal of Bible and Theology 16, no. 1 (2008), 302-306.
Henry, Matthew. “Ephesians 6 Commentary – Matthew Henry Commentary On The Whole Bible (Complete)”. Bible Study Tools, Last modified 2018. https://www.biblestudytools.com/commentaries/matthew-henry-complete/ephesians/6.html.
Holy bible New International Version. n.d.
Holy bible NASB. N.d.
Lee, Watchman, and Witness Lee. “Life-Study of Ephesians, Chapter 1.” Online Publications from Living Stream Ministry. Accessed December 13, 2018. https://www.ministrybooks.org/AmanaDsp.cfm?id=855.
Matthews, Henry. “Ephesians 6 Commentary – Matthew Henry Commentary on the Whole Bible (Complete).” Bible Study Tools. Last modified 2018. https://www.biblestudytools.com/commentaries/matthew-henry-complete/ephesians/6.html.
Smith, Johan O. “The Whole Armor of God: Commentary on Ephesians 6.” ActiveChristianity. Last modified November 27, 2018. https://activechristianity.org/whole-armor-of-god.
Smith, Mahlon. “Historical Background For The Spiritual Armor In Ephesians 6”. Biblicalexegete, Last modified 2014. https://biblicalexegete.wordpress.com/2014/12/08/historical-background-for-the-spiritual-armor-in-ephesians-6/.
 John P. Heil, “Book Review: Ephesians: Empowerment to Walk In Love for the Unity of All In Christ,” Interpretation: A Journal of Bible and Theology 16, no. 1 (2008): 305.
 Bob Deffinbaugh, “The Uniqueness of Ephesians Among the Epistles,” Bible.org, last modified May 26, 2007, https://bible.org/seriespage/1-uniqueness-ephesians-among-epistles.
 Watchman Lee and Witness Lee, “Life-Study of Ephesians, Chapter 1,” Online Publications from Living Stream Ministry, accessed December 13, 2018, https://www.ministrybooks.org/AmanaDsp.cfm?id=855.
 NIV Ephesians 6:12
 NIV Ephesians 6:11
 NIV Ephesians 6:18
 NIV Ephesians 6:11
 Smith, Mahlon. “Historical Background For The Spiritual Armor In Ephesians 6”. Biblicalexegete, Last modified 2014. https://biblicalexegete.wordpress.com/2014/12/08/historical-background-for-the-spiritual-armor-in-ephesians-6/.
 Henry, Matthew. “Ephesians 6 Commentary – Matthew Henry Commentary On The Whole Bible (Complete)”. Bible Study Tools, Last modified 2018. https://www.biblestudytools.com/commentaries/matthew-henry-complete/ephesians/6.html.
 Jamieson Brown, “Ephesians 6 Commentary – Commentary Critical And Explanatory On The Whole Bible”, Bible Study Tools, accessed 14 December 2018, https://www.biblestudytools.com/commentaries/jamieson-fausset-brown/ephesians/ephesians-6.html.
 Mohamed M. Abdel-Ghany, “Readiness for change, change beliefs and resistance to change of extension personnel in the New Valley Governorate about mobile extension,” Annals of Agricultural Sciences 59, no. 2 (2014): 297.
 Henry Matthews, “Ephesians 6 Commentary – Matthew Henry Commentary on the Whole Bible (Complete),” Bible Study Tools, last modified 2018, https://www.biblestudytools.com/commentaries/matthew-henry-complete/ephesians/6.html.
 Bible Hub, “Ephesians 6:10 Commentaries: Finally, Be Strong in the Lord and in the Strength of His Might,” Bible Hub: Search, Read, Study the Bible in Many Languages, last modified 2018, https://biblehub.com/commentaries/ephesians/6-10.htm.
 NIV Ephesians 6:12
 Kenneth Boa, conformed to his image (Michighan: Zondervan, 2010), 431.
 Jason Broge, “Proper 17 • Ephesians 6:10–20,”: Vol. 41: No. 3, Article 10, “Concordia Journal 41, no. 3 (2015): 29, Available at: https://scholar.csl.edu/cj/vol41/iss3/10.
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