Towson University Separation of Mixture of Solids Lab Report

review the lab manual and reference manual carefully and write experimental design

The purpose of this experiment is to learn methods of separating a mixture of
substances and to perform calculations involving mass percentages.
Special Apparatus and Chemicals:
Bunsen burner
2 Evaporating dishes
Iron ring and stand
Electric hot plate
Watch glass
Clay triangle
2-3g of unknown mixture
Since chemistry is the scientific study of the composition, structure, and
properties of matter and the transformations that it undergoes, chemists are
often called upon to determine the composition of a material. If the material is a
mixture, the components of the mixture may have to first be separated in order
to quantitatively determine the composition. Materials may be classified as
either pure substances or a mixtures. Pure substances are those materials
defined by a fixed composition and a set of characteristic properties. A pure
substance may be either an element or a compound. Mixtures are combinations
of two or more pure substances in a variable ratio. Mixtures may be classified
as heterogenous or homogenous. Homogenous mixtures (often called solutions)
have a uniform composition throughout; heterogenous mixtures have a variable
composition in different regions of the material.
Mixtures may be separated into pure substances based on differences in the
physical properties of its component pure substances. Physical properties are
those properties that can be measured without changing the basic nature of the
substance. Some examples of physical properties are melting and boiling
points, color, odor, density, solubility, and hardness. In this experiment we will
use differences in the properties of sublimation and solubility to separate a
heterogenous mixture of solid NH4C1, NaC1, and Si02.
Because ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) undergoes sublimation at 340°C and NaC1 and
Si02 do not, the NH4C1 may therefore be separated from a mixture containing NaCl
and Si02 by heating the mixture containing all three above 340°C. A substance is said
to undergo sublimation when it goes from the solid phase directly to the gas phase
without passing through the liquid state. Some common substances that undergo
sublimation under normal conditions are CO2 (dry ice), iodine, naphthalene (moth
balls), and ice (below the freezing point, 0°C). Upon heating the mixture containing
NH4Cl, the ammonium chloride will be seen leaving the sample as a white smoke. As
soon as the ammonium chloride leaves the dish, the sublimed NH4C1 condenses back
to a solid which is seen as white smoke.
Both NH4C1 and NaCl are soluble in water but SiO2 is not. NH4C1 and/or NaC1 could
be extracted from a mixture with SiO2 by adding water to preferentially dissolve the
NH4C1 and/or NaC1. The aqueous solution of NH4C1 and/or NaC1 that forms could
be removed from the still solid SiO2 by decantation or filtration. Decantation is the
process of carefully pouring a liquid from a solid. Filtration is the process of using a
porous membrane (i.e. filter paper), allowing a liquid to pass through leaving the solid
behind on the filter.
Once you have determined the mass of the components in a mixture, and the total
mass of the sample is known, the percent by mass of the components in the mixture
may be determined. The composition of mixtures is often reported as a mass percent.
“Percent” means per centuin the amount out of 100. Percents are calculated by taking
a fraction or ratio and multiplying by 100. To calculate a mass percent take the mass
fraction and multiply by 100. For example if a mixture contains two components A
and B with a total sample mass of 2.454g and there is 1 .002g of A in the mixture then
the mass percent of A in the mixture may be calculated as follows:
The unknown mixture that you will separate contains 3 components, NaCl (sodium
chloride, “table salt”), SiO2, (silicon dioxide, “sand” or “silica”) and NH4Cl
(ammonium chloride). The separation of these three compounds will be accomplished
by first heating the mixture to remove NH4Cl by sublimation. Next, extracting the
NaCl from the mixture with water, and finally removing the remaining water from the
NaCl and SiO2. See scheme above:
Weigh a clean, dry evaporating dish. Add between 2 to 3 grams of your unknown
mixture and weigh the dish and the sample and determine the sample mass to the full
limit of precision of your balance. Put the evaporating dish with the mixture on a
ring stand IN THE FUME HOOD and heat the mixture over a Bunsen burner until
white smoke stops forming.
CAUTION: Sublimation
must be done in the hood because a large amount of NH 4Cl
smoke is produced. Be careful to make sure that all of the NH 4Cl has been removed
from the dish, check to make sure none has recondensed on the side of the dish.
Crucible tongs may be used to move the dish and a wire gauze pad should be used as a
hot pad. Cool the evaporating dish to room temperature and weigh the dish and
sample after heating. (NEVER WEIGH HOT OBJECTS). The mass difference before
and after heating is the amount of NH4Cl sublimed. Calculate the mass percent of
NH4Cl in the original sample.
Alternative Heating Method. If Bunsen burners are unavailable, the sublimation
may be carried out by placing the sample in a evaporating dish or Petri dish
bottom and
heating on an electric hot plate turned on high. Remember to do this step in the
Add 20 mL of distilled water to the solid remaining in the evaporating dish and stir to
dissolve the NaCl. Weigh the second evaporating dish and watch glass empty. After
letting any SiO2 present settle to the bottom, decant (pour off) the liquid from the first
dish to the second. Be careful not to transfer any of the SiO2, sediment to the second
dish. Add 10 more mL of water to the first dish, stir, and then again decant liquid to
the second dish. Repeat with a second 10 mL portion of water. Now the first dish
contains wet SiO2 and the second an aqueous solution of NaCl.
Heat both dishes carefully on a hot plate until all of the water evaporates. When the
dish containing NaCl is near to dryness, cover with the watch glass to prevent
splattering as the last of the water evaporates. After all the water has evaporated from
both dishes (make sure the watch glass is completely dry also), cool to room
temperature, and weigh both dishes. Calculate the amount of NaCl and SiO2, that you
have recovered from the sample. Calculate the mass percentage of NaCl and SiO 2 that
were in the original sample.
DISPOSAL: The NaCl left in the evaporating dish may be washed down
the sink since it is non-toxic and water soluble. The leftover SiO2 should
be dumped in the trash can.
Add the masss of NH4Cl, NaCl, and SiO2 that you determined to be in your sample.
Calculate the percent of matter that you recovered. If your combined total is not
between 99.0% and 100.0%, explain what mistakes may have occurred in your
experiment. Some common mistakes include not completely drying the NaCl or SiO2,
letting some of the NaCl solution splash out of the dish during evaporation, and
material popping out of the dish during sublimation or evaporation. Consult your
instructor to find out if you should repeat the procedure.
Name: _______________
Section: ______________
Date: ________________
Unknown number: ___________________
Mass of Original Sample
Mass of dish #1 and original sample
_____ _____ _____ g
Mass of dish #1
_____ _____ _____ g
Mass of original sample
_____ _____ _____ g
Separation of NH4C1 from Mixture
Mass of dish #1 and original sample
Mass of dish #1 after subliming NH4C1
Mass of NH4CI removed
Percent of NH4C1 in original mixture
Average percent NH4C1
_____ _____ _____ g
_____ _____ _____ g
_____ _____ _____ g
_____ _____ _____ %
Separation of SiO2 from Mixture
Mass of dish #1 and SiO2
Mass of evaporating dish #1
Mass of SiO2,
Percent of SiO2 in original mixture
Average percent SiO2
_____ _____ _____ g
_____ _____ _____ g
_____ _____ _____ g
_____ _____ _____ %
Separation of NaC1 from Mixture
Mass of dish #2, watch glass, and NaC1
Mass of dish #2 and watch glass
Mass of NaC1
Percent of NaC1 in original mixture
Average percent NaC1
_____ _____ _____g
_____ _____ _____g
_____ _____ _____g
_____ _____
_____ _____
Recovery of Components
Mass of original sample
Sum of masses of individual components
Percent of matter determined
Average percent determined
_____ _____ _____g
_____ _____ _____g
_____ _____
_____ _____
If the percent of matter determined is less than 99.0% or greater than 100.0%,
explain what errors occurred in your experiment.

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Towson University Separation of Mixture of Solids Lab Report
Just from $13/Page
Order Essay
Place your order
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages
Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our guarantees

Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.

Money-back guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

Read more

Zero-plagiarism guarantee

Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

Read more

Free-revision policy

Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.

Read more

Privacy policy

Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.

Read more

Fair-cooperation guarantee

By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.

Read more
Live Chat+1(978) 822-0999EmailWhatsApp

Order your essay today and save 20% with the discount code LEMONADE