Gastric cancer is a common problem among alcoholics. It brings with it challenges that may lead to different health complications. Proper diagnosis should be done to make sure that the patient has this problem as the medication often involves a lot of difficulties. Patient should also get involved in a healthy lifestyle which may support his medication.
Key words: cancer, gastric cancer, belligerent and malignant tumors, cancer treatment.
Cancer may be caused by several factors which are mainly centered in cells. First, it may be caused by genetic changes which are prompted by a gain or loss of whole chromosomes or mutations which occur at single points hence affecting one DNA nucleotide. Two types of genes are affected by this change: oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Second, genomic amplifications may occur. It occurs when cell obtain many copies of small chromosomal locus which contains at least one oncogene and neighboring genetic material. Third, point mutations may occur at distinct nucleotides. Sometimes it includes deletions and insertions at the gene’s promoter region. Translocation may also occur involving the abnormal fusion of a pair of chromosomal regions at a particular location. Finally, there is the formation of cancerous tumors. These are swellings that are likely to grow rapidly and even spread to other tissues. Some tumors grow as cell suspensions like leukemia but most develop as solid mass tumors (Mandal, 2014).
Tumors are categorized as malignant or benign. Benign tumors are those that cannot spread to other cells or tissues by invasion and metastasis. Malignant tumors are capable of spreading through metastasis and invasion. By definition, benign tumors are not cancer while malignant tumors are cancer. If Mr. M. O. has cancer, it indicates that he has been diagnosed with malignant tumors (Botet et al., 1991).
Mr. M. O. should undergo an endoscopic ultrasound test to determine the stage of growth of his cancer. This process involves the insertion of an endoscope into the abdomen via the mouth or the rectum. An endoscope has a light and lens for viewing. It produces high energy sound waves which bounce off body organs and tissues and makes echoes. These echoes are used to generate a picture called a sonogram. The sonogram is able to show tumors that are in the body and whether they are malignant or no depending on how far they have spread. Mr. M. O. should use this method due to its low risk. It requires neither radioactive rays as in the CT scan nor cuts on the patient’s body (Fletcher et al., 2002).
Cancer treatment often required the use of one or more of the primary treatment modalities. The primary modalities include chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery. Radiotherapy or surgery alone may be used in cases where the tumors are localized and small. Only certain cancers may be cured using chemotherapy. In extreme cases, the whole cancer care team may be involved in lending treatment (Griffin, Chung & Cli, 1989).
Mr. M. O’s main concerns as far as side effects are considered include nausea, vomiting loss of hair and tiredness. These should be considered when choosing whether to go ahead with medication. The information will also serve to make the patient more comfortable medication since he understands that these are only side effects of his medication (Griffin et. Al. 1996).
Mr. M. O. shows low numbers of each component. This implies that the patient is likely to be suffering from anemia and hence his low counts of red blood cells, and leucocytes. The cancer treatment is likely to cause this. The patient may also be bleeding too much owing to his low platelet counts and this may be the cause for his anemia. His low count of white blood cells means that he is at risk of catching diseases due to his low immunity.
While Mr. M. O. is undergoing chemotherapy, he should take utmost care to ensure he gets well. His low white blood cell count shows a risk for him to catch other diseases. This indicates that Mr. M. O. should engage in a healthy lifestyle. His healthy lifestyle should include exercises, a proper healthy diet and continued use of his medication. By so doing, his rate of recovery will be improved (Botet et al., 1991).
Cancer patients often require care where radiology is required. Radiologic science experts in this case are responsible for both their own health and the heath of their patients. Standard regulations should be engaged to ensure that patients are not exposed to unnecessary radiations. This requires the use of proper and well maintained equipment, usage of recommended procedures and only performing these tests and procedures only when they are completely necessary (Chevassut, 2002).
In conclusion cancer involves the development of malignant tissues in the body. They are often treated using various methods including chemotherapy, radiotherapy, surgery and any combination of these. The method used is dependent on the stage of development, the size of the tumor and the type of cancer. Proper care should be taken by both Mr. M. O. and his physicians to ensure that he does not get involved in unhealthy situations.
Griffin, A. M., Butow, P. N., Coates, A. S., Childs, A. M., Ellis, P. M., Dunn, S. M., & Tattersall, M. H. N. (1996). On the receiving end V: patient perceptions of the side effects of cancer chemotherapy in 1993. Annals of Oncology, 7(2), 189-195.
Mandal, A. (2014, June 30). Cancer Pathophysiology. Retrieved June 30, 2014, from http://www.news-medical.net/health/Cancer-Pathophysiology.aspx
Griffin, S., Chung, S., & Cli, A. (1989). Treating gastric cancer. BMJ: British Medical Journal, 299(6701), 739.
Fletcher, C., Berman, J., Corless, C., Gorstein, F., Lasota, J., & Longley, B. et al. (2002). Diagnosis of gastrointestinal stromal tumors: a consensus approach. International Journal Of Surgical Pathology, 10(2), 81–89.
Chevassut, D. (2002). Caring for Cancer Patients. Springer, 131–143.
Botet, J., Lightdale, C., Zauber, A., Gerdes, H., Winawer, S., Urmacher, C., & Brennan, M. (1991). Preoperative staging of gastric cancer: comparison of endoscopic US and dynamic CT. Radiology, 181(2), 426–432.
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