Part 1

The public spending on healthcare in the US is much superior per capita compared to most OECD nations. Therefore, Americans pay greater more in taxes dedicated to medical care not inclusive of insurance premiums, fees, co-payments, and extra health costs compared to taxpayers in the 27 nations that have the universal system. American public expenditure offers coverage only for the aged and some of the underprivileged (via Medicaid and the SCHIP plans for kids) whilst other nations offer universal treatment at the same time spending less. The United States expenditure is considerably more on health care as a proportion of gross domestic product (GDP) compared to other developed nations. During 2010, the US healthcare expenditure amounted to about 17.9 percent of GDP that amounted to $8402 per individual. On the unadjusted measures habitually used to evaluate populace health, US outcomes are inferior to the nations that spend less, and on numerous of these programs (Carey, Herring & Lenain, 2009).

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Nations with analogous standards of livelihood like France, Sweden, Germany, Finland, Canada, the United Kingdom, Norway, and Japan spent approximately between half and about two-thirds per capita compared America’s annual expenditure. They cover everybody and their results are demonstrably better. Moreover, the theoretical downsides of collective coverage, for instance, lack of contact to refined medical technologies in numerous of these nations are belied. For example Japan has a lesser per capita health spending compared to United, however, its citizens have larger contact to MRI machines, kidney dialysis equipment and CT scanners than Americans do.

Americas grossly inflated and badly managed health financial plan results from a diversity of pathologies, including a better predominance of obesity and additional chronic illnesses and a dominant pharmaceutical entity that keeps prices elevated. This is in addition to the moneymaking necessity of the private insurance firms that still control American health policy, greater than four decades following the establishment of collective coverage for the aged and the poor. Nevertheless, it is hard to picture how the United States could afford to offer superior healthcare for every citizen in an era of reduced resources. Most developed countries realized long ago, that if healthcare is to be a public element and a human privilege, the power of private interests should be curtailed.

Based on data comparison of health condition, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development presented a statement on health system positions, indicating that the US structure does not achieve better than structures in nations that spend less. Japan has the best ever healthy living expectancy on planet and uses up half as much towards health care compared to United States. Japan maintains a low cost of its healthcare. Japanese Health Ministry strongly regulates the cost of health care to the minimum detail. In each two years, both the health care sector and the health ministry bargain a constant price for each procedure and each drug. This helps maintain premiums to approximately $280 every month for the standard Japanese family, a lot fewer than what Americans pay. Additionally, Japan’s hirers pick up no less than half of that. In Japan if an individual loses their job, they keep their health insurance that could never happen in the US (Carey, Herring & Lenain, 2009). The nation’s insurers are very cooperative compared to their American equivalents. For instance they can never refuse a claim in addition to covering everybody. Aggressive treatment towards the sick elderly additionally makes the healthcare costly. In the U.S., numerous aged patients treatment takes place in intensive care units, however, in other nations they obtain only palliative care. Additional amenities for instance seclusion and space in hospitals, greatly attractive clinics as well add to U.S. expenses. America experiences the mainly disjointed health care system among the affluent industrialized nations, with varied entitlement programs controlled at federal and state ranks. This adds to numerous paperwork and bureaucracy. Typically, in excess of 30% of the funds vanish in administrative costs, as compared to lesser than about 10% in other wealthy countries.

On numerous measures, US health position is inferior than the ones of other nations. Infant death rate is described as the quantity of infants’ deaths aged one year or less for every 1,000 live births. It is a significant measure since the death of a child has a larger impact on a population’s living expectancy.  America’s comparative performance is decreasing. In 1960, the US held the twelfth lowly infant mortality position in the globe. By 1990, it had slumped to twenty-third; in 2008, the country sank to thirty-fourth position. Additionally, the elevated infant mortality proportion proofs deprived healthcare opportunities even in racial viewpoints. For instance, in 2005, the  African-American infants faced about 13.63 for every 1,000 births fatality rate. Moreover, Americans own a lesser life expectancy due to higher proportions of heart disease and cancer, along with an infant death rate that is over twice as big as other wealthy industrialized nations. Even Cuba owns a lesser infant death rate compared the US (Huffingtonpost, 2014).


Huffingtonpost. (2014). Howard Steven Friedman: US Infant Mortality Rate Higher Than Other Wealthy Countries. Retrieved August 4, from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/howard-steven-friedman/infant-mortality-rate-united-states_b_1620664.html

Carey, D., Herring, B., & Lenain, P. (2009). Health care reform in the
United States. Retrieved August 4, from http://www.oecd.org/officialdocuments/publicdisplaydocumentpdf/?doclanguage=en&cote=eco/wkp%282009%296

Carey, D., B. Herring and P. Lenain (2009), “Health Care

Reform in the United States”, OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 665, OECD publishing. Retrieved August 4, from http://www.amcp.org/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=13448

Part 2

Health care insurance challenges

  • High healthcare insurance premiums
  • Healthcare insurance fraud
  • Limits on coverage for various services

The uninsured people

  • The unemployed
  • Self employed
  • Part-time workers
  • Young adults
  • Working for small businesses (AHIP, 2014)

Parts of Medicare

  1. Part A (Hospital Insurance); this covers mainly medically crucial hospital, trained nursing facility, house health and hospital care.
  2. Part B (Medical Insurance); this covers mainly medically basic doctors’ services, precautionary care, resilient medical equipment, hospice outpatient, laboratory evaluations, x-rays, psychological health care, and ambulance services.
  3. Part C is a part that permits private health insurance firms to offer Medicare benefits.
  4. Part D (outpatient Prescription Drug Insurance) this is the section of Medicare that offers outpatient prescription medication coverage. This part is provided only via private insurance companies which have been contracted by the government (Medicareinteractive, 2014)



AHIP. (2014). America’s Health Insurance Plans – The Issues. Retrieved August 4, from http://www.ahip.org/Issues/

Medicareinteractive. (2014). Medicare Interactive – What does Medicare cover (Parts A, B, C and D)? Retrieved August 4, from http://www.medicareinteractive.org/page2.php?topic=counselor&page=script&script_id=214

Part 3

Purposes of research

  • Developing new health treatments and cures.
  • Developing new drugs and new methods of preventing diseases in individuals at risk of contacting them.
  • Developing vaccines to stop infectious diseases

Ethical research related issues

  • Avoidance of provision of unoriginal findings or Plagiarism
  • Evading falsehood and falsification
  • Preventing utilization of faulty data-collecting procedures
  • Avoiding poor data storage and preservation  (Socialresearchmethods, 2014)

Types of research studies

·         Clinical trials-they involve research for a drug, medical apparatus  or surgery in healthy volunteers or individuals who have a particular disease.

·         Physiological studies- are studies performed to better realize ways in which the human body operates.

  • Public health research- these researches studies attempts to progress the health and welfare of individuals from a populace-level perspective (Connecttoresearch, 2014).

Connecttoresearch. (2014). What types of health research are there? | Community Connect to Research. Retrieved August 4, from http://www.connecttoresearch.org/understanding_research/what_types_of_health_research_are_there

Socialresearchmethods. (2014). Ethics in Research. Retrieved August 4, from http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/ethics.php

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