Urinary System


The urinary system is also referred to as the renal system and its primary function is to produce, store, and eradicate urine from the body. Urine is a waste that is excreted by the kidneys. The kidneys produce urine through filtration of wastes, as well as extracting excess water from the blood. After the urine has been made in the kidneys, it travels through two small tubes known as the ureters, and it is emptied in an organ known as the bladder (Jones, Mohr, & Hard, 2013). Once the bladder is full, a person feels the urge to urinate, which is facilitated through another small tube known as the urethra, which is how the human waste urine is eliminated from the body. Fluid balance as well as how homeostasis is also attained in the body when the blood electrolytes that consist of potassium, sodium, bicarbonate, and chloride help regulate the muscles and nerve function as well as maintaining  the acid-base PH in the body and this is attained by water moving in and out of the body cells. This process is known as osmoregulation.

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Description of the Urinary System

The urinary system consists of many organs that work in harmony with each other. Some of the organs that work with the kidney include the skin, lungs, and intestines, which help in maintaining the balance of water and chemicals in the body. It is estimated that adults excrete about 27 to 68 fluid ounces of water, which is about 800 to 2,000 milliliters of urine each day, and this is generally based on their daily intake of fluids (Jones et al., 2013).

It is essential to mention that kidneys are the primary organs of the urinary system. These kidneys are bean-shaped organs located just below the human rib cage in the mid-section of the back (Schrier, 2007). The kidneys function is to remove a product known as urea, which is the waste product that is formed when proteins in the body are broken down from the blood when tiny filtering units known as nephrons are processed (International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2016).  Every single neoprene consists of small globules that are formed of small blood capillaries known as the glomerulus. They also have a small tube known as a renal tubule whose function is to aid in the excretion of urine (Kely & Landman, 2012). It is essential to mention that urine is formed by urea, together with water and many other waste substances in the body and it is created when it goes through the nephrons down the renal tubes of the kidney (Watson, 2004). From the organs, the urine then travels down the two thin tubes known as the ureters, which originate from each of the two kidneys. They empty the waste product into the bladder that holds the urine until an individual urinates the waste from the body. The ureter that moves the urine from the kidneys to the bladder is about 20 to 25 centimeters.

Muscles around the ureter walls contract and relax continuously, which is the bodily function that pushes the urine out of the kidneys. This is an essential function, as a backup of urine in the kidneys can lead to kidney infections, which are bad as they can affect the health of an individual negatively. The relaxing and contraction of the muscles around the ureter is important, as they help in emptying the urine from the kidney into the bladder every ten to fifteen seconds, which helps protect the kidneys from any infection.

The blander is another vital organ in the urinary system. The bladder is a balloon-like hollow-shaped organ located in the human pelvis, which is the one that helps in protecting the bladder from injury. The balder is held in place by strong ligaments that are attached to the pelvic bones and other body organs. The bladder stores the urine when the brain communicates that there is a need for the balder to be emptied and this is when an individual feels the urge to urinate (International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2016). A healthy functioning bladder should hold up to half a liter of urine without any pain for about two to five hours. It is essential to state that the bladder has circular muscles known as sphincter muscles that hold tightly around the base of the bladder where the urethra starts (Jones, 2012). These muscles are the ones that prevent leakages from the bladder, and they only relax to let the urine flow when an individual is cautious that they want to empty their bladder. There are minor differences between the male and the female urinary system. One of these differences is the length of the urethra, where the female urethra is about 1.5 to 2 inches while the male urethra is about inches long (Eble, 2004). While the female urethra is used to eliminate urine, the male urethra is used to remove both urine and semen.  

The urinary system can develop many medical conditions and infections, such as kidney failure. It is, therefore, essential for individuals to live a lifestyle that does not impact their urinary systems in any negative way.


Eble, J. (2004). Pathology and Genetics of Tumours of the Urinary System and Male Genital

Organs. New York, NY: Greenwood Press. 

Jones, T., Mohr, U., & Hard, G. (2013). Urinary system. New York, NY: Springer Science &

Business Media. 

Jones, T. (2012). Crash Course: Renal and Urinary Systems E-Book. Chicago, IL: Elsevier

Health Sciences.

International Agency for Research on Cancer. (2016). WHO Classification of Tumours of the

Urinary System and Male Genital Organs. London, UK: International Agency for Research on Cancer.

Kelly, C., & Landman, J. (2012). The Netter Collection of Medical Illustrations – Urinary System.

New York, NY: Elsevier Health Sciences. 

Schrier, R. (2007). Diseases of the Kidney and Urinary Tract. Chicago, IL: Elsevier

Health Sciences.Watson, S. (2004). The Urinary System. New York, NY: Greenwood Press.

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